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R3  V I 8 





EDITED    BY   A.    H.    SAYCE 
VOL.  I 

Multse  terricolis  linguae,  coelestibus  una 




THE  favourable  reception  accorded  to  the  first  series 
of  Records  of  the  Past,  and  the  hope  more  than  once 
expressed  since  its  discontinuance  that  a  similar 
series  would  be  again  started,  have  led  to  this  second 
attempt  to  lay  before  the  public  some  of  the  most 
important  documents  left  us  by  the  civilised  nations 
of  the  ancient  Oriental  world.  During  the  ten  years 
that  have  elapsed  since  the  first  series  was  concluded, 
Assyrian  research  may  be  said  to  have  entered  upon 
a  new  phase.  Expeditions  have  returned  from 
Babylonia,  bringing  with  them  the  spoils  of  ancient 
libraries,  the  clay  tablets  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum  and  elsewhere  have  been  copied  and 
examined  with  increased  industry  and  exactness, 
and  students  have  been  flocking  to  the  new  study  in 
Germany  and  America.  The  decipherment  of  the 
cuneiform  inscriptions  of  Van  has  opened  up  a  fresh 
world  of  language  and  history,  and  the  geography  of 
Western  Asia  in  the  Assyrian  epoch  has  been 
mapped  out  in  almost  all  its  essential  details. 

The  increase  of  materials,  and  more  especially  of 


labourers  in  the  field  of  research,  has  made  our  know- 
ledge of  the  Assyrian  lexicon  at  once  wider  and 
more  accurate.  Inscriptions-  which  were  still  obscure 
ten  years  ago  can  now  be  read  with  a  fair  approach 
to  exactness,  while  many  of  the  translations  proposed 
in  the  former  series  of  the  Records  can  be  amended 
in  many  respects.  Indeed  there  are  certain  cases  in 
which  the  progress  of  knowledge  has  shown  the 
tentative  renderings  of  a  few  years  ago  to  be  so 
faulty,  if  not  misleading,  that  it  has  been  determined 
to  replace  them  by  revised  translations  in  the  series 
which  is  now  being  issued. 

The  new  series  will,  it  is  hoped,  be  found  to  be 
an  improvement  upon  its  predecessor  in  certain 
points.  The  translations  will  be  provided  with  fuller 
introductions  and  notes,  bearing  more  particularly 
upon  the  history,  geography,  and  theology  of  the 
texts,  and  drawing  attention  to  the  illustrations  they 
afford  of  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  Testament.  The 
historical  inscriptions,  moreover,  will  be  published,  so 
far  as  is  possible,  in  chronological  order. 

In  one  point,  however,  a  difference  will  be  noticed 
between  the  plan  of  this  second  series  of  Records  and 
that  of  the  first.  The  value  of  a  translation  from  a 
language  known  only  to  a  few  scholars  depends  in 
large  measure  upon  the  confidence  with  which  its 
precise  wording  can  be  accepted.  The  writer  who 
wishes  to  make  use  of  a  translation  from  an  Egyp- 
tian or  Assyrian  text  for  historical  or  controversial 
purposes  ought  to  know  where  it  is  certain,  and 


where  it  is  only  possible,  or  at  most  probable.  He 
ought  to  receive  warning  of  passages  or  words  or 
readings  of  doubtful  character,  and  the  translator 
ought  to  provide  proofs  of  any  new  renderings  he 
may  give.  In  the  present  series  of  volumes,  accord- 
ingly, doubtful  words  and  expressions  will  be 
followed  by  a  note  of  interrogation,  the  preceding 
word  being  put  into  italics  where  necessary :  other- 
wise italics  will  be  used  only  for  the  transliteration 
of  proper  names  or  words  which  cannot  at  present 
be  translated.  The  notes  will  contain  a  justification 
of  new  translations,  whether  of  words  hitherto  unde- 
ciphered  or  of  words  to  which  a  different  signification 
has  hitherto  been  attached.  The  names  of  indi- 
viduals will  be  distinguished  from  those  of  deities  or 
localities  by  being  printed  in  Roman  type,  whereas 
the  names  of  deities  and  localities  will  be  in  capitals. 
Though  exploration  and  discovery  have  been 
carried  on  actively  in  Egypt  during  the  last  decade, 
thanks  mainly  to  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund  and 
the  enterprise  of  Professor  Maspero,  the  results  have 
not  been  so  startling  or  numerous  as  those  which 
have  attended  the  progress  of  the  younger  study  of 
Assyriology.  There  is  not  the  same  reason  for 
amending  the  translations,  previously  published,  of 
Egyptian  documents,  nor  has  any  large  number  of 
historical  texts  been  brought  to  light.  Instead,  there- 
fore, of  publishing  alternately  translations  from  the 
Assyrian  and  Egyptian  monuments,  Assyrian  and 
Egyptian  texts  will  appear  in  the  same  volume, 

vin  PREFA  CE 

though  it  will  doubtless  happen  that  the  Assyrian 
element  will  preponderate  in  some  volumes,  the 
Egyptian  element  in  others.  Egyptian  and  Assyrian, 
of  course,  will  not  be  exclusively  represented  ;  Phoe- 
nicians and  Proto-Armenians  have  left  us  written 
monuments,  comparatively  few  though  they  may  be, 
and  the  Records  of  the  Past  would  be  incomplete 
without  such  important  inscriptions  as  that  of  the 
Moabite  king  Mesha  or  of  the  Hebrew  Pool  of 

In  commending  the  first  volume  of  this  new  series 
of  Records  to  the  approval  of  the  public,  the  Editor 
must  not  forget  to  say  that  the  enterprise  is  inter- 
national, eminent  scholars  belonging  to  all  national- 
ities having  consented  to  take  part  in  it,  and  that  if 
his  name  appears  somewhat  too  frequently  in  the 
present  volume,  it  is  a  fault  which  shall  not  occur 

A.   H.   SAYCE. 

y  August  1888. 




OF  THE  BABYLONIANS.     By  the  EDITOR   .  i 

II.  THE    INSCRIPTIONS    OF   TELLOH.       By    M. 

ARTHUR  AMIAUD   .....         42 


&-ANA.       By    Mr.    THEO.    G.    PINCHES, 
Assistant-Curator  in  the  British  Museum   .          78 

IV.  AN  ERECHITE'S   LAMENT.      By  Mr.  THEO. 

G.  PINCHES  ......         84 


OF  ASSYRIA.     By  the  EDITOR  .         .          .          86 


By  the  EDITOR       .         .         .         .         .122 



By  the  EDITOR.      .....        147 



By  Professor  J.  OPPERT,  Member  of  the 
Institute  .  .  .  .  .  .154 

EDITOR  .  .  .  .  .  .163 


SILOAM.     By  the  EDITOR         .         .         .168 


N    a, '  ?    / 

2     b  13     m 

a  g  !••:• 

1    d  D     'j,  s 

\\     h  ye 

*  I        z 

T       3  P       /J 

n   /'/;  p   ^ 

D     rfA  "1     r 

^     it  y  W     s,  sh 

T  k  n  / 

A7".^. — Those  Assyriologists  who  transcribe  W  by  j/j  use  j  for  D. 
The  Assyrian  e  represents  a  diphthong  as  well  as  y. 

In  the  Introductions  and  Notes  W.  A.  I.  denotes  The 
Cuneiform  Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  in  five  volumes, 
published  by  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 


1.  Ni'sannu  (Nisan) 

2.  Aaru  (lyyar) 

3.  'Sivanu  (Sivan)    . 

4.  Duzu  (Tammuz) . 

5.  Abu  (Ab)  .... 

6.  Ululu  (Elul) 

7.  Tasritu  (Tisri)     . 

8.  Arakh  -  savna    (Marchesvan) 

"  the  8th  month  "    . 

9.  Ki'silivu  (Chisleu) 
i  o.  Dhabitu  (Tebet) . 

1 1.  Sabadhu  (Sebat) 

12.  Addaru  (Adar)    . 

13.  Arakh-makhrti  (Ve-Adar),  the 


March — April. 
April — May. 
May — June. 
June — July. 
July — August. 
August — September. 
September — October. 

October — November. 
November — December. 
December — January. 
January — February. 
February — March, 
intercalary  month. 



CHRONOLOGY  is  the  skeleton  of  history,  and  until 
we  can  find  the  correct  chronological  place  for  a  his- 
torical monument  it  loses  a  large  part  of  its  value. 
Thanks  to  the  lists  of  the  so-called  eponyms,  by 
means  of  whom  the  Assyrians  dated  their  years,  the 
chronology  of  the  Assyrian  kings  has  long  since  been 
placed  upon  a  satisfactory  footing  as  far  back  as  the 
tenth  century  before  our  era.  The  dates,  moreover, 
assigned  by  Sennacherib  to  Tiglath-Pileser  I.  (B.C. 
1 1 06),  and  Tukulti-Uras,  the  son  of  Shalmaneser  I. 
(B.C.  1290),  as  well  as  the  lengthy  genealogies  with 
which  these  kings  are  connected,  enable  us  to  extend 
Assyrian  chronology  back  for  another  five  hundred 
years,  though,  of  course,  with  only  approximate 

While   our   knowledge   of  Assyrian    chronology, 

however,  has  thus  been  tolerably  fixed  for  a  long 

time  past,  we  have  had  to  depend  upon  the  vague 

and  contradictory  statements  of  Greek  writers    for 

VOL.  I  B 


our  knowledge  of  the  chronology  of  the  older  king- 
dom of  Babylonia.  Apart  from  the  invaluable  table 
of  kings  known  as  Ptolemy's  Canon,  which  belongs 
to  the  later  period  of  Babylonian  history,  and  the 
unsatisfactory  list  of  dynasties  excerpted  from  an 
epitomist  of  Berossos,  our  only  monumental  authori- 
ties for  Babylonian  chronology  were  the  Assyrian 
inscriptions  themselves,  together  with  a  few  fragments 
of  a  dynastic  tablet  brought  to  light  by  Mr. 
George  Smith  and  the  so-called  Synchronous  History 
of  Assyria  and  Babylonia,  of  which  I  published  a 
translation  in  the  former  series  of  Records  of  the 
Past  (vol.  iii.)  This  "  Synchronous  History "  was 
composed  by  an  Assyrian  scribe,  and  consists  of 
brief  notices  of  the  occasions  on  which  the  kings  of 
the  two  countries  had  entered  into  relation,  hostile  or 
otherwise,  with  one  another.  Since  my  translation 
was  published  in  1874,  another  large  fragment  of 
the  tablet  has  been  discovered,  and  accordingly  I 
purpose  giving  a  new  translation  of  the  whole  docu- 
ment in  a  future  volume  of  the  present  series.  The 
"Synchronous  History"  gives  no  dates,  and  conse- 
quently its  chronological  value  depends  upon  our 
knowledge  of  the  respective  dates  to  which  the 
Assyrian  monarchs  mentioned  in  it  belong. 

Within  the  last  few  years  a  number  of  discoveries 
due  to  Mr.  Pinches  has  entirely  changed  our  position 
in  regard  to  the  chronology  of  the  Babylonian  kings. 
As  I  have  already  stated,  Mr.  Smith  found  among 
the  tablets  brought  from  the  royal  library  of  Nineveh 


a  small  fragment  which,  as  he  perceived,  contained 
the  names  and  regnal  years  of  the  kings  of  Baby- 
lonia, arranged  in  dynasties.  The  work  to  which  it 
belonged  must  accordingly  have  been  similar  to  that 
from  which  Berossos  derived  his  dynastic  list  of 
Chaldean  monarchs.  Mr.  Smith  published  the  frag- 
ment, with  a  translation  and  commentary,  in  the 
Transactions  of  the  Society  of  Biblical  Arc/oology y 
iii.  2  (1874).  It  is  written  on  both  sides,  and  the 
tablet  once  consisted  of  six  columns,  each  containing 
about  seventy  lines.  I  will  call  it  the  "  Third 
Dynastic  Tablet." 

The  next  discovery  was  made  by  Mr.  Pinches  six 
years  later  among  the  inscriptions  brought  from  the 
site  of  Babylon  by  the  overseer  of  Mr.  Hormuzd 
Rassam.  He  found  among  them  a  small  tablet  of 
unbaked  clay,  quite  complete  and  inscribed  on  both 
sides.  It  contains  the  names  of  the  kings  belonging 
to  two  early  dynasties,  the  number  of  years  reigned 
by  each  king  being  added  to  the  names  in  the  case 
of  the  first  dynasty.  The  tablet  seems  to  be  a  sort 
of  schoolboy's  exercise,  having  been  copied  from 
some  larger  work  in  order  to  be  committed  to 
memory.  The  Reverse  has  been  published  by  Mr. 
Pinches  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Biblical 
Archeology,  7th  December  1880,  and  I  will  call  it 
the  "  First  Dynastic  Tablet." 

Another  and  more  important  document  —  the 
"  Second  Dynastic  Tablet " — was  published  by  Mr. 
Pinches,  with  a  translation  and  explanation,  in  the 


Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Biblical  Archeology,  6th 
May  1884.  This  is  also  a  tablet  of  unbaked  clay 
from  Babylonia,  and  it  contains  a  list  of  the  Baby- 
lonian sovereigns,  arranged  in  dynasties,  from  the  first 
dynasty  which  made  the  city  of  Babylon  the  capital 
down  to  the  period  of  the  Persian  conquest.  The 
number  of  regnal  years  is  added  to  the  name  of 
each  king  and  the  length  of  time  each  dynasty  lasted 
is  duly  recorded.  The  names  of  some  of  the  kings 
are  written  in  an  abbreviated  form  :  this  is  especially 
the  case  with  those  belonging  to  the  second  dynasty. 

The  list,  it  will  be  observed,  is  confined  to  the 
dynasties  which  reigned  in  Babylon  itself.  No 
notice  is  taken  of  the  kings  and  dynasties  who  ruled 
in  "  Accad  and  Sumer  "  before  Babylon  became  the 
capital  of  the  empire.  The  lost  columns  of  the 
"  Third  Dynastic  Tablet "  show  how  numerous  they 
were,  and  the  fact  is  borne  out  by  the  bricks  and 
other  monuments  of  early  Chaldean  monarchs 
whose  names  do  not  occur  among  the  successors  of 
'Sumu-abi.  Most  of  the  kings,  indeed,  whose  names 
are  known  to  us  in  connection  with  the  temples  they 
built  or  restored  belonged  to  older  dynasties  than 
those  which  had  their  seat  in  the  city  of  Babylon. 

A  considerable  number  of  their  names  is  to  be 
found  in  another  tablet  brought  by  Mr.  Rassam  from 
Assyria,  and  published  by  Mr.  Pinches  in  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Society  of  Biblical  A  rc/iczology,  1 1  th 
January  1881.  A  small  portion  of  it  had  already 
been  published  in  W.  A.  I.,  ii.  65,  and  had  given  rise 


to  a  good  many  false  conclusions.  The  object  of 
this  tablet  was  philological  and  not  chronological  ;  in 
fact  the  writer  expressly  states  that  the  names  of  the 
kings  were  "  not  written  according  to  their  chrono- 
logical order."  He  merely  wished  to  furnish  the 
Semitic  or  Assyro-Babylonian  translations  of  the 
Accado-Sumerian  and  Kassite  names  borne  by  so 
many  of  the  early  princes,  and  in  some  cases  of  the 
mode  in  which  the  names  of  Semitic  kings  were  pro- 
nounced or  written  by  their  Accadian  subjects. 

Among  the  latter  is  the  name  of  Sargon  of  Accad, 
the  ancient  hero  of  the  Semitic  population  of  Chaldaea, 
who  founded  the  first  Semitic  empire  in  the  country 
and  established  a  great  library  in  his  capital  city  of 
Agade  or  Accad  near  Sippara.  The  seal  of  his 
librarian,  Ibni-sarru,  of  very  beautiful  workmanship, 
is  now  in  Paris,  and  has  been  published  by  M.  de 
Clercq  (Collection  de  Clcrcq,  pi.  5,  No.  46),  while  a 
copy  of  his  annals,  together  with  those  of  his  son 
Naram-Sin,  is  to  be  found  in  W.  A.  I.,  iv.  34.  His 
date  has  been  fixed  by  a  passage  in  a  cylinder  of 
Nabonidos  discovered  in  the  ruins  of  the  temple  of 
the  Sun-god  at  Sippara,  and  published  in  W.  A.  I., 
v.  64.  The  antiquarian  zeal  of  Nabonidos  led  him  to 
excavate  among  the  foundations  of  the  temple  in  the 
hope  of  finding  the  cylinder  of  Naram-Sin,  who  was 
known  to  have  been  the  founder  of  it,  and  he  tells 
us  (col.  ii.  5  6  seg.)  : — 

"  I  sought  for  its  old  foundation-stone,  and  eighteen  cubits 


I   dug  into  the  ground,    and  the   foundation-stone    of 

Naram-Sin,  the  son  of  Sargon, 
which  for  3200  years  no  king  who  had  gone  before  me 

had  seen, 
the  Sun-god,  the  great  lord  of  E-Babara,  the  temple  of  the 

seat  of  the  goodness  of  his  heart, 
let  me  see,  even  me." 

In  the  opinion,  therefore,  of  Nabonidos,  a  king 
who  had  a  passion  for  investigating  the  past  records 
of  his  country,  Naram-Sin  reigned  3200  years  before 
his  own  time,  that  is  to  say,  about  B.C.  3700. 

Before  the  rise  of  the  Semitic  kingdom  of  Sargon 
of  Accad,  lies  that  earlier  Accado-Sumerian  period 
when  Babylonia  was  still  in  the  hands  of  a  people 
who  spoke  an  agglutinative  language,  such  as  those 
of  the  modern  Turks  or  Finns,  and  had  originated 
the  cuneiform  system  of  writing  and  the  primitive 
civilisation  of  the  Chaldean  cities.  Relics  of  this 
ancient  period  have  been  discovered  by  M.  de 
Sarzec  in  the  mounds  of  Tel-loh,  and  the  Sumerian 
inscriptions  which  they  bear  are  now  being  de- 
ciphered by  French  scholars,  more  especially  by 
M.  Amiaud.  M.  Amiaud  has  been  good  enough 
to  introduce  the  historical  documents  of  Babylonia 
and  Assyria  to  the  readers  of  the  present  series 
of  Records  of  the  Past,  by  his  translations  of  these 
oldest  memorials  of  human  life  and  thought  in  the 
valley  of  the  Euphrates.  If  Sargon  of  Accad  lived 
about  B.C.  3800,  the  kings  of  Telloh  must  have 
flourished  as  far  back  as  the  fourth  millennium  before 
our  era. 


The  last  chronological  document  brought  to  light 
during  the  last  few  years  is  in  many  respects  the 
most  important  of  all.  This  is  what  has  been 
termed  "The  Babylonian  Chronicle"  by  its  dis- 
coverer, Mr.  Pinches,  who  gave  an  abstract  of  it  in 
the  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Biblical  A  rchceology, 
6th  May  1884.  Since  then,  the  text  has  been 
published  with  a  translation  and  commentary  by 
Dr.  Winckler  in  the  Zeitschrift  filr  Assyriologic> 
ii.  2,  3  (1887);  it  has  also  been  translated  by 
Dr.  Oppert  The  tablet  (which  is  marked  84. 
2- 1 1,  356)  was  brought  from  Babylonia  and  is 
inscribed  on  both  sides  with  four  columns  of  text. 
It  was  a  copy  or  compilation  made  by  a  Babylonian 
in  the  reign  of  Darius  from  older  records,  and  must 
have  been  similar  to  the  document  from  which 
Ptolemy's  Canon  of  Babylonian  kings  was  extracted. 
Like  the  latter  it  starts  from  the  era  of  Nabonassar, 
B.C.  747. 

The  chronicle  is  written  from  a  Babylonian  point 
of  view,  and  must  therefore  be  checked  by  contem- 
poraneous Assyrian  inscriptions.  What  they  de- 
scribe as  Assyrian  successes  are  sometimes  passed 
over  altogether  or  represented  as  Babylonian  vic- 
tories. The  Assyrian  kings  Tiglath-Pileser  III  and 
Shalmaneser  IV  are  not  acknowledged  under  the 
names  they  had  adopted  from  two  of  the  most 
illustrious  monarchs  of  the  first  Assyrian  empire, 
but  under  their  original  names  of  Pul  and  Ulula  ; 
Sargon,  on  the  other  hand,  whose  name  was  that  of 


the  favourite  hero  of  Babylonian  legend,  is  known 
by  the  same  name  in  the  Chronicle  as  he  is  on  the 
monuments  of  Assyria.  At  the  same  time  the 
Chronicle  helps  us  in  correcting  the  inaccuracies  of 
the  Assyrian  accounts,  where,  for  example,  Suzub 
represents  both  Nergal-yusezib  and  Musezib-Mero- 
dach.  In  fact,  it  confirms  the  judgment,  already 
expressed  by  Assyriologists,  that  Sennacherib  is  the 
least  trustworthy  of  the  royal  historians  of  Assyria. 

We  are  at  present  ignorant  of  the  precise  way  in 
which  the  Babylonians  reckoned  their  chronology. 
In  Assyria  the  years  were  named  after  certain  officers, 
ordinarily  known  as  eponyms,  who  were  changed 
each  year,  and  as  most  of  the  institutions  of  Assyria 
were  derived  from  Babylonia  it  is  very  probable  that 
the  system  of  counting  time  by  the  names  of  the 
eponyms  was  also  of  Babylonian  invention.  How  far 
we  can  trust  the  dates  assigned  to  the  kings  of  the 
earlier  dynasties  is  open  to  question.  The  length  of 
reign  assigned  to  the  kings  of  the  dynasties  of  the 
sea  and  of  Bit-Bazi  in  the  Second  and  Third  Dynastic 
Tablets  do  not  agree,  while  the  number  of  regnal  years 
given  to  the  several  kings  of  the  first  dynasty  of  Babylon 
not  only  plays  on  the  same  ciphers  but  is  suspiciously 
long.  On  the  other  hand,  the  contract -tablets  be- 
longing to  the  time  of  Khammuragas  imply  that  his 
reign  was  not  a  short  one. 

There  is  evidence  in  a  later  part  of  the  dynastic 
lists  that  at  least  one  name  has  been  omitted.  Dr. 
Winckler  has  published  (in  the  Zeitschrift  fur  As- 


syriologie,  ii.  3)  the  commencement  of  an  inscription 
from  Babylonia  (marked  83.1-18)  belonging  to  a 
certain  king  of  Babylon,  who  calls  himself  Kuri-galzu 
the  son  of  Kara-Urus.  Dr.  Winckler  shows  that  this 
must  be  Kuri-galzu  II,  and  that  his  name  ought  to 
occur  in  the  list  between  those  of  Kara-Urus  and 
Rimmon-nadin-suma.  It  is  quite  possible  that  other 
reigns  have  fallen  out  in  other  parts  of  the  lists. 

The  lacuna  in  the  Second  Dynastic  Tablet  be- 
tween the  beginning  of  the  eighth  dynasty  and  the 
commencement  of  the  reign  of  Nabonassar  unfor- 
tunately prevents  us  from  determining  with  certainty 
the  date  assigned  by  the  compiler  of  it  to  'Sumu-abi. 
But  there  are  two  synchronisms  between  Babylonian 
and  Assyrian  history  which  may  serve  to  remedy  the 
defect.  According  to  Sennacherib,  Merodach-nadin- 
akhe  defeated  Tiglath-Pileser  I,  418  years  before  his 
own  conquest  of  Babylon,  that  is  to  say,  in  B.C.  1106, 
while  the  "  Synchronous  History "  makes  Assur-bil- 
kala,  the  son  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I,  the  contem- 
porary of  Merodach-sa.pik-kullat,  and  Assur-dan  the 
great-grandfather  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I,  the  contem- 
porary of  Zamama-nadin-suma,  the  father  of  Assur- 
dan  being  contemporaneous  with  Rimmon-[suma- 
natsir  ?].  If  Merodach-nadin-akhe  is  the  ninth  king 
of  the  dynasty  of  Isin,  the  date  of  Zamama-nadin- 
suma  will  be  B.C.  1160,  agreeing  very  well  with  the 
period  to  which  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Assur-dan 
should  be  assigned.  In  this  case  Sagasalti-buryas, 
who  flourished  800  years  before  Nabonidos,  will  not 


be  identical  with  the  Saga-sal [tiyas]  of  the  dynastic 
list.  The  reign  of  Khammuragas  will  have  com- 
menced B.C.  2282,  the  first  dynasty  of  Babylon 
establishing  its  power  there  in  B.C.  2394. 

We  learn  from  the  inscriptions  of  Khammuragas 
that  he  was  the  first  of  his  dynasty  to  rule  over  the 
whole  of  Babylonia.  A  rival  dynasty  had  previously 
reigned  at  Karrak  in  the  south,  while  the  Elamites 
had  invaded  portions  of  the  country  and  probably 
held  them  in  subjection.  Assur-bani-pal  states  that 
the  Elamite  king  Kudur- Nankhundi  had  carried 
away  the  image  of  the  goddess  Nana  from  Babylonia 
1635  years  before  his  own  time,  or  about  B.C.  2285, 
and  contract -tablets  refer  to  the  conquest  of  "the 
lord  of  Elam  and  King  Rim-Agu"  of  Karrak  by 
Khammuragas.  A  large  number  of  contract-tablets, 
indeed,  belong  not  only  to  the  reigns  of  Khammu- 
ragas and  his  son  Samsu-iluna,  but  also  to  the  reign 
of  Rim-Agu,  who  seems  to  have  been  master  of  the 
greater  part  of  Chaldaea  before  his  overthrow  by  the 
king  of  Babylon.  George  Smith  was  probably  right 
in  identifying  him  with  the  son  of  the  Elamite  prince 
Kudur- Mabug,  who  ruled  at  Larsa  and  claimed  the 
imperial  title  of  "  king  of  Sumer  and  Accad." 

The  rise  of  the  empire  of  Khammuragas  brought 
with  it  a  revival  of  learning  and  literature  such  as 
had  marked  the  rise  of  the  empire  of  Sargon.  The 
calendar  appears  to  have  been  reformed  at  this 
period,  and  the  great  native  work  on  astronomy  and 
astrology  put  into  the  shape  in  which  it  has  come 


down  to  us.  The  reign  thus  formed  an  era  some- 
what similar  to  that  of  Nabonassar,  and  it  is  therefore 
curious  to  see  how  closely  the  date  I  have  assigned 
to  it  corresponds  with  that  arrived  at  by  von  Gut- 
schmidt  from  classical  sources  for  the  beginning  of 
the  Babylonian  epoch.  If  the  Latin  translation  can 
be  trusted  (Simplicius  ad  Arist.  de  Coelo,  503  A),  the 
astronomical  observations  sent  by  Kallisthenes  from 
Babylon  to  Aristotle  in  B.C.  331  reached  back  for 
1903  years  (i.e.  to  B.C.  2234).  Berossos  the  Chaldean 
historian,  according  to  Pliny  (N.H.  vii.  57),  stated 
that  these  observations  commenced  at  Babylon  490 
years  before  the  Greek  era  of  Phoroneus,  and  conse- 
quently in  B.C.  2243.  According  to  Stephanos  of 
Byzantium,  Babylon  was  built  100:2  years  before  the 
date  (given  by  Hellanikos)  for  the  siege  of  Troy 
(B.C.  1229),  which  would  bring  us  to  B.C.  2231,  while 
Ktesias,  according  to  George  Syncellus,  made  the 
reign  of  Belos  or  Bel-Merodach  last  for  fifty-five  years 
from  B.C.  2286  to  2231.  The  fifty-five  years  of  Belos 
agree  with  the  fifty-five  of  Khammuragas. 

I  add  here  the  Canon  of  Babylonian  kings  given 
by  Ptolemy  in  the  Almagest. 


1.  Nabonassar  (Nabu-natsir),  14  years          .         .        747 

2.  Nadios  (Nadinu),  2  years        .         .          .         .        733 

3.  Khinziros  and  Poros  (Yukin-zira  and  Pul),   5 

years       .          .          .         .          .         .          .731 

4.  Iloulaios  or  Yougaios1  (Ulula),  5  years    .         .        726 

1  Yougaios,  if  it  is  not  due  to  a  corruption  of  the  text,  may  represent 
the  name  of  Vagina,  the  father  of  Merodach-baladan. 



5.  Mardokempados  (Merodach-baladan),  12  years  721 

6.  Arkeanos  (Sargon),  5  years     .         .          .          .  709 

7.  Interregnum  for  2  years1        .          .         .          .704 

8.  Belibos  (Bel-ebus),2  3  years    .          .          .         .  702 

9.  Aparanadios3  (Assur-nadin-suma),  6  years         .  700 

10.  Regebelos  (Nergal-yusezib),  i  year.         .          .  694 

11.  Mesesimordakos  (Musezib-Merodach),  4  years  .  693 

12.  Interregnum  for  8  years          ....  689 

13.  Asaridinos  (Esar-haddon),  13  years          .         .  68 1 

14.  Saosdoukhinos  (Saul-suma-yukin),  20  years       .  668 

15.  Kineladanos  (Kandalanu),  22  years          .          .  648 

1 6.  Nabopolassaros  (Nabu-pal-utsur),  21  years        .  626 

17.  Nabokolassaros  (Nebuchadnezzar),  43' years     .  605 

1 8.  Ilauaroudamos  (Avil-Merodach),  2  years.          .  562 

19.  Nerigasolasaros  (Nergal-sarra-utsur),  4  years      .  560* 

20.  Nabonadios  (Nabu-nahid),  17  years         .          .  556 

1  Filled  up  according  to  Alexander  Polyhistor  by  the  brother  of  Senna- 
cherib, by  Hagisa  or  Akises  for  thirty  days,  and  by  Merodach-baladan  for 
six  months. 

2  Called  Elibos  by  Alexander  Polyhistor. 

3  Assordanios  according  to  Alexander  Polyhistor. 

4  Josephus  (from  Berossos)  here  inserts  Laborosoarkhodos,  the  infant 
son  of  Neriglissor,  for  three  months. 



1.  'Sumu-abi,  the  king:   15  years. 

2.  'Sumu-la-ilu,  the  son  of  the  same  :  35  years. 

3.  Zabu,  the  son  of  the  same  :   14  years. 

4.  Abil-Sin,  the  son  of  the  same  :   1 8  years. 

5.  Sin-muballidh,  the  son  of  the  same  :   30  years. 

6.  Khammu-ragas,1  the  son  of  the  same  :  55  years. 

7.  'Sam'su-iluna,2  the  son  of  the  same  :  35  years. 

8.  Ebisum,3  the  son  of  the  same  :   25  years. 

9.  Ammi-satana,  the  son  of  the  same  :   2  5  years. 

i  o.  Ammi-sadugga,4  the  son  of  the  same  :  2 1  years. 

11.  'Sam'su-satana  (?),  the  son  of  the  same  :  31  years. 

12.  ii  kings  .of  the  dynasty  of  BABYLON. 


1.  (The  dynasty  of)  URU-AZAGGA.S     Anman  the  king. 

2.  KI-[AN]  Nigas.6 

3.  Damki-ili-su.7 

1  The  first  five  names  of  the  dynasty  are  Semitic.     Khammuragas  is 
Kassite   or   Kossaean,    and   is   interpreted   "  of  a   large   family."      Sin- 
muballidh  may  have  married  a  foreign  wife. 

2  "The  Sun-god  (is)  our  god,"  another  Semitic  name. 

3  "The  doer,"  also  Semitic. 

4  Kassite,  interpreted  "the  family  is  established." 

5  Uru-azagga  is  now  represented  by  a  part  of  the  mounds  of  Telloh 
(the  ancient  Sirpurla)  or  its  immediate  vicinity. 

6  Nigas  was  an  Elamite  word. 

7  Semitic,  signifying  "gracious  is  his  god." 


4.  Is-ki-pal.1 

5.  Sussi.2 

6.  Gul-ki-sar.3 

7.  Kirgal-dara-mas,  the  son  of  the  same. 

8.  A-dara-kalama,  the  son  of  the  same.4 

9.  A-kur-du-ana.5 

10.  M  elam-kurkura. 6 

11.  Ea-ga(mil  ?).7 

12.  i[i]  kings  of  the  dynasty  of  URU-AZAGGA. 

1  Perhaps  to  be  read  in  Semitic  Sapin-mat-nukurti,  ' '  the  sweeper  away 
of  the  land  of  the  foe."     The  name  seems  to  have  been  a  title. 

2  Perhaps  the  Semitic  sussu,   "sixty." 

3  In  Semitic  Muabbid-kissati,  "  the  destroyer  of  hosts. " 

4  Apparently,  therefore,  the  son  of  the  preceding  king. 

5  Rendered  by  the  Semitic  Abil-Bel-u' sum-same,  "  the  son  of  Bel  (the 
lord)  of  the  treasury  of  heaven." 

6  "  The  glory  of  the  world." 

7  The  last  character  is  partially  destroyed.     If  my  restoration  is  correct, 
the  name  would  be  Semitic  and  signify  "  Ea  has  rewarded." 


No.    2.— TRANSLATION    OF    THE    SECOND 

The  first  eleven  lines  are  destroyed. 

12.   ii  kings  [of  the  dynasty  of  BABYLON]  for  [294  years]. 

13.  Anma[n]  for  [5]!  (years). 

14.  Ki-AN  [Nigas]  for  55  (years). 

15.  Damki-ili[su]  for  46*  (years). 

1 6.  Is-ki-[pal]  for  15  (years). 

17.  Sussi,  (his)  brother,  for  27  (years). 

1 8.  Gul-ki-[sar]  for  55  (years). 

19.  Kirgal-[dara-mas]  for  50  (years). 

20.  A-dara-[kalama]  for  28  (years). 

21.  A-kur-du-[ana]  for  26  (years). 

22.  Melamma-[kurkura]  for  6  (years). 

23.  Bel-ga[mil?]  for  9  (years). 

24.  For  368  (years)  the  n  kings  of  the  dynasty  of  URU- 


25.  Gandis  for  16  (years). 

26.  Agum-si[pak]  his  son  for  22  (years). 

27.  Guya-si[pak]  for  22  (years).2 

28.  Ussi  his  son  for  8  (years). 

29.  Adu-medas  for  ...  (years). 

30.  Tazzi-gurumas  for  ...   (years). 

1  Mr.  Pinches'  copy  gives  36  years. 

2  Is  this  king  merely  a  duplicate   of   his   predecessor,    the   different 
spelling  of  the  name  having  caused  the  annalist  to  divide  one  king  into  two  ? 


31.   [Agum-kak-rimi l  for  ...  years]. 

The  next  line  of  this  column  and  the  first  thirteen  lines  of 
the  next  are  destroyed. 


14 for  22  (years). 

15 for  26  (years). 

1 6 for  17  (years). 

17.  Kara  .  .  . 2  for  2  (years). 

1 8.  Gis-amme  ...  ti  for  6  (years). 

19.  Saga-sal [tiy as]  for  13  (years). 

20.  Kasbat  his  son  for  8  (years). 

21.  Bel-nadin-sumi  for  i  year  (and)  6  months. 
2  2.   Kara-Urus  3  for  i  year  (and)  6  months. 

23.  Rimmon-nadin-suma  for  6  (years). 

24.  Rimmon-suma-natsir  for  30  (years). 

25.  Meli-Sipak4  for  15  (years). 

26.  Merodach-abla-iddin   (Merodach-baladan)   his   son   for 

13  (years). 

27.  Zamama-nadin-sumi 5  for  i  (year). 

28.  Bel-suma  .  .   . G  for  3  (years). 

29.  For  576  (years)  9  months  the  36  kings  [of  the  dynasty 

of  the  KASSiTEs].7 

30.   Merodach-  ....  for  1 7  (years). 

1  Supplied  from  an  inscription  of  the  king  himself,  who  styles  himself 
the  son  of  Tassi-gurumas,  the  descendant  of  Abi  .   .   .   the  son  of  Agum 
.   .   .  and  the  offspring  of  the  god  Suqamuna. 

2  Identified    by    Dr.    Oppert   with    Kudur  -  Bel,    who,    according    to 
Nabonidos,  was  the  father  of  Sagasalti-buryas,  the  latter  of  whom  reigned 
800  years  before  himself  (B.C.  1340).      But  the  identification  is  doubtful, 
since  the  names  do  not  agree. 

3  "The  servant  of  Bel"  (Kudur- Bel)  in  Kassite. 

4  "The  man  of  Merodach"  in  Kassite. 

5  Zamama-nadin-sumi  was  a  contemporary  of  the  Assyrian  king  Assur- 
dan-an  (whose  name  should  probably  be  read  Assur-dan,  and  be  identified 
with  that  of  Assur-dayan,  the  great-grandfather  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I.) 

6  Or  Bel-nadin-  .   .   . 

7  The  Kassites  were  a  rude  tribe  of  the  Elamite  mountains  on  the  north- 
east side  of  Babylonia.      Noldeke  has  shown  that  they  must  be  identified 
with  the  Kossoeans  of  classical  geography. 


31 for  6  (years). 

The  next  line  of  this  column  and  the  first  four  of  the  next 
are  destroyed. 


5 for  22  (years). 

6.  Merodach-nadin-  ... 1  for  i  year  and  6  months. 

7.  Merodach-kul[lat]  .  .  .  2  for  13  (years). 

8.  Nebo-nadin-  ...  for  9  (years). 

9.  For   72    (years   and)   6   months   the    n  kings   of  the 

dynasty  of  IsiN.3 

10.  Simmas-si[pak]  for  18  (years). 

11.  Bel-mukin-[ziri]  for  5  months. 

12.  Kassu-nadin-akhi  for  3  (years). 

13.  For  21  (years  and)  5  months  the  three   kings  of  the 

dynasty  of  the  land  of  the  Sea.4 

14.  E-ulbar-sakin-sumi  for  17  (years). 

15.  Uras-kudurri-[utsur]  for  3  (years). 

1 6.  Si/am'm  (?)-Suqamu[na]  for  3  months. 

17.  For  20  (years  and)  3  months  the  3  kings  of  the  dynasty 

of  BIT-[BAZI]. 

1 8.  AN  .  .  .   [an  ELAMITE]  for  6  (years). 

19 for  13  (years). 

1  Perhaps  Merodach-nadin-akhi,  the  antagonist  of  the  Assyrian  king 
Tiglath-Pileser  I. ,  418  years  before  the  conquest  of  Babylon  by  Sennacherib, 
and  consequently  B.C.  1106. 

-  Perhaps  the  Merodach-sapik-kullat  of  the  Synchronous  Tablet,  who 
was  a  contemporary  of  Assur-bil-kala,  the  son  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I. 

3  Isin  (PA-SE)  was  also  called  Pate' si  ("  the  city  of  the  high-priest"  in 
Babylonia),  according  to  W.  A.  I.,  ii.  53,  13. 

4  That  is,  the  Persian  Gulf.     Merodach-baladan  is  described  below  as 
also  belonging  to  the  dynasty  of  the  country  of  the  Sea,  and  his  ancestral 
kingdom  was  that  of  the  Kalda  or  Chaldees  in   Bit-yagina  among  the 
marshes  at  the  mouth  of  the  Euphrates. 

VOL.  I  C 


20 for  6  months  (and)  12  (days). 

The  nc.vt  twelve  lines  of  the  column  and  the  first  line  of  the 
fourth  column  are  destroyed. 


2.  Nebo-suma-yukin  [the  son  of  Dakuri]  for  ...  (years). 

3.  Nabu-[natsir] 1  for  [14]  (years). 

4.  Nebo-nadin-ziri 2  his  son  for  2  (years). 

5.  Nebo-suma-yukin  his  son  for  i  month  and  12  days. 

6.  The  31  [kings  ?] 3  of  the  dynasty  of  BABYLON. 

7.  Yukin-zira  of  the  dynasty  of  SASi4  for  3  (years). 

8.  Pulu5  for  2  (years). 

9.  Ulula6  of  the  dynasty  of  TINU  for  5  (years). 

i  o.   Merodach-abla-iddina  (Merodach-baladan)  of  the  dynasty 
of  the  country  of  the  Sea  for  1 2  (years). 

1 1.  Sargon  for  5  (years). 

12.  Sin-akhe-erba  (Sennacherib)  of  the  dynasty  of  KHABI 

the  greater  for  2  (years). 

13.  Merodach-zakir-sumi   the   son   of  Arad-    .    .    .    for    i 


14.  Merodach-abla-iddina  a  soldier  of  KHABI  7  for  6  months. 

1 5.  Bel-ebus  of  the  dynasty  of  Babylon  for  3  (years). 

1 6.  Assur-nadin-sumi  of  the  dynasty  of  KHABI  the  greater 

for  6  (years). 

17.  Nergal-zusezib  for  i  (year). 

1  The  Nabonassar  of  Ptolemy's  Canon,  B.C.  747. 

2  Called  Nadinu  in  the  Babylonian  Chronicle. 

3  Possibly  we  should  supply  "years"  instead  of  "kings." 

4  The  annals  of  Tiglath-Pileser  III  show  that  we  should  read  Sapi  or 
Sape.     Yukinzira  is  the  Khinziros  of  Ptolemy's  Canon. 

5  Pulu  is  the  Pul  of  the  Old  Testament,  the  P6ros  of  Ptolemy's  Canon. 
His   name   is   replaced   by    that   of  Tiglath-Pileser  in    the    Babylonian 
Chronicle,  and  the  two  years  of  his  reign  correspond  with  the  two  years 
during  which  Tiglath-Pileser  reigned  over  Babylonia. 

6  The  Shalmaneser  of    the   Babylonian   Chronicle   and    the  Assyrian 
monuments,  the  Ilulaios  of  Ptolemy's  Canon. 

7  Docs   this   imply  that   he   was  a  different   person   from  the  famous 
Merodach-baladan,  the  contemporary  of  Sargon  and  Hezekiah  ? 


1 8.  Musezib-Merodach  of  the  dynasty  of  BABYLON  for  4 


19.  Sin-akhe-erba  (Sennacherib)  for  8  (years). 

20.  Assur-akhe-iddina  (Esarhaddon)  for  [12  years]. 

21.  Samas-suma-yukin  (Saosdukhinos)  for  [20  years]. 

22.  Kandal-[anu]  (Khineladanos)  for  [22  years]. 

The  rest  of  the  tablet  is  destroyed. 



01>V. — COLUMN   I 

Only  the  ends  of  two  lines  in  the  middle  have  been  preserved. 

....   600  (years)  he  reigned. 
[The  kings] (were)  in  all. 

Obv. — COLUMN  ii 

....  ili  

(AN)  Illadu *  the  son  of  the  same  for  ...  (years). 
Mul-men-nunna  .... 
Kbit  (?)-Kis  the  son  of  .... 

Obv. — COLUMN    III 

Is  entirely  lost.     It  contained  about  seventy  lines. 

Rev. — COLUMN  iv 

[The  dynasty]  of  BABYLON,  [n  kings  for  294  years]. 
'Sumu-[abi  for  15  years]. 
Zabu  [for  14  years.] 
Abil-Sin  [for  18  years]. 
Sin-[muballidh  for  30  years]. 

The  next  six  lines  are  destroyed. 

The  i  [  i  kings  of  the  dynasty  of  URU-AZAGGA]. 
For  3  [6  8  years]. 

An[man]  .... 
Ki[-AN-nigas]  .... 

The  rest  of  the  column  is  destroyed. 

1  This  was  the  Semitic  reading  ;    the  Accadian   seems  to  have  been 


Rev. — COLUMN  v 
The  marshmen  (?)  of  the  country  of  the  sea  (were)  in  all : 

The  'leader  of  the  marshmen  (?)  of   the  land  of  the   sea 

(was)  Simmas-sipak  the  son  of  Erba-Sin ; 
whose  reign  was  prosperous  :  his  god  brought  him  aid ;  for 

17  years  he  reigned. 

In  the  palace  of  Sargon  (his  corpse)  was  burned. 
Ea-mukin-zira    established     himself  as    king,    the     son    of 

Kha'smar ; l  for  3  months  he  reigned. 
In  the  vestments  of  BIT-KHA'SMAR  he  was  burned. 
Kassu-nadin-akhi  the  son  of  Sappa2  reigned   for   6   years. 

[He  was  burned]  in  the  palace. 
The  3  kings  of  the  dynasty  of  the  country  of  the    Sea 

reigned  for  23  years. 

[E]-ulbar-sakin-sumi  the  son  of  Bazi  reigned  for  1 5  years  : 
in  the  palace  of  KAR-MERODACH  [he  was  burned]. 

[Uras]-kudurri-utsur  the  son  of  Bazi  reigned  for  2  years. 

[Silanim]-Suqamuna  the  son  of  Bazi  reigned  for  3  months  : 
in  the  palace  of  Lu  .  .  .  SA  [he  was  burned]. 

[The  3]  kings  of  the  dynasty  of  the  house  of  Bazi  reigned 
for  20  years  (and)  3  months. 

a  descendant  of  the  race  of  ELAM  reigned  for 

6  years. 
In  the  palace  of  Sargon  he  was  burned. 

[One  king]  of  the  dynasty  of  ELAM  reigned  for  6  years. 

The  rest  of  the  tablet  is  lost. 

1  May  also  be  read   Kutmar.      The  word  meant    "a  hawk"    in   the 
Kassite  language.  2   "  The  Sappite. " 



Obv. — COLUMN    I 

1.  [In  the  3d  year  of  Nabonassar]  king  of  BABYLON 

2.  [Tiglath-pileser]  in  ASSYRIA  sat  on  the  throne. 

3.  In  the  same  year  [Tiglath-pileser]  descended  into  the 

country  of  ACCAD,  and 

4.  the  cities  of  RABBIKU  and  KHAMRANU  he  spoiled, 

5.  and  the  gods  of  the  city  of  SAPAZZA  he  carried  away. 

6.  In  the  time  of  Nabu-natsir  (Nabonassar)  the  town  of 


7.  was    separated    from    BABYLON.      The   battle    which 


8.  fought  against  BORSIPPA  is  not  described.1 

9.   In  the  5th  year  of  Nabu-natsir  Umma(n)-nigas 
10.  in  ELAM  sat  upon  the  throne. 

11.  In  (his)  1 4th  year  Nabu-natsir  fell  ill  and  died2  in  his 


12.  For  14  years  Nabu-natsir  reigned  over  BABYLON. 

1 3.  Nadinu 3  his  son  sat  upon  the  throne  in  BABYLON. 

14.  In  the  second  year  Nadinu  was  slain  in  an  insurrection. 

15.  For  two  years  Nadinu  reigned  over  BABYLON. 

1 6.  Suma-yukin 4  the  governor,  the  leader  of  the  insurrec- 

tion, sat  upon  the  throne. 

1  That  is,  in  the  history  from  which  the  writer  extracted  his  chronicles. 

2  Literally  "fate"  (overtook  him). 

3  The  Nebo-nadin-ziri   ("Nebo  has  given  a  seed")  of  the  Dynastic 
Tablet ;  Nadios  in  Ptolemy's  Canon. 

4  Called  Nebo-suma-yukin  in  the  Dynastic  Tablet. 


17.  For  2  months  and  .  .  days  Suma-yukin  reigned  over 


1 8.  Yukin-zira  .   .  .  seized  upon  the  throne. 

19.  In  the  3d  year  of  Yukin-zira  Tiglath-pileser, 

20.  when  he  had  descended  into  the  country  of  ACCAD, 

21.  destroyed  BIT-AMUKANU  and  captured  Yukin-zira. 

22.  For  3  years  Yukin-zira  reigned  over  BABYLON. 

23.  Tiglath-pileser  sat  upon  the  throne  in  BABYLON. 

24.  In   (his)    2d  year  Tiglath-pileser  died  in  the    month 


25.  For  [22]  years   Tiglath-pileser  the   sovereignty  over 


26.  and  ASSYRIA  had  exercised.     For  two  years  he  reigned 

in  ACCAD. 

27.  On  the  25th  day  of  the  month  Tebet  Sulman-asarid 

(Shalmaneser)  in  ASSYRIA 

28.  sat   upon    the   throne.       He    destroyed    the    city    of 


29.  In   (his)   5th   year  Sulman-asarid   died   in   the  month 


30.  For  5  years  Sulman-asarid  reigned  over  the  countries 

of  ACCAD  and  ASSYRIA. 

31.  On  the  1 2th  day  of  the  month  Tebet  Sargon  sat  upon 

the  throne  in  ASSYRIA. 

32.  In  the  month  Nisan  Merodach-baladan  sat  upon  the 

throne  in  BABYLON. 

33.  In  the   2d  year  of  Merodach-baladan  Umma(n)-nigas 
king  of  Elam 

1  December. 

2  Not  to  be  confounded  with  'Samerina  or  Samaria.     M.  Hale"vy  may 
be  right  in  identifying  it  with  the  city  of  Sibraim  mentioned  in  Ezek.  xlvii. 
1 6  as  lying  between  Damascus  and  Hamath. 


34.  in    the  province  of  DUR-ILI   fought  a  battle  against 

Sargon  king  of  ASSYRIA,  and 

35.  caused  a  revolt   from  ASSYRIA  :  he   overthrew  them l 


36.  Merodach-baladan  and  his  army,  which  to  the  assistance 

37.  of  the  king  of  ELAM  had  gone,  did  not  obtain  a  battle  : 

he  arrived  too  late.2 

38.  In  the  5th  year  of  Merodach-baladan  Umma(n)-nigas 

king  of  ELAM  died. 

39.  [For  3  years]  Umma(n)-nigas  reigned  over  ELAM. 

40.  [Sutruk  3-nankhun]du  the  son  of  his  sister  sat  on  the 

throne  in  ELAM. 
41 up  to  the  loth  year 

The  remaining  lines  of  the  column  are  destroyed. 


1.  In  the  .  .   th  year  .... 

2.  A  battle  .... 

3.  For     1 2     years     [Merodach  -  baladan     reigned     over 


4.  Sargon  [sat  upon  the  throne  in  BABYLON].4 

The  next  fourteen  lines  are  destroyed. 

1 9.  The  Babylonians  he  did  not  oppress  (?) 5  .   .  . 

20.  he  (Sennacherib)  was  angry  also  with  Merodach-baladan, 

and  [took  him  prisoner] ; 

21.  he  devastated  his  country,  and  .  .  . 

22.  the  cities  of  LARAK  and  SARRABA[NUG  he  destroyed]. 

1  That  is,  the  Assyrians.  The  Annals  of  Sargon,  on  the  other  hand, 
claim  the  victory  for  Assyria,  though  Babylonia  was  left  in  the  hands  of 

2  Literally,  "he  undertook  it  too  late"  (ana  arki  itsbat- so). 

3  The  Elamite  Sutruk  was  identified  by  the  Assyrians  with  their  god- 
dess Istar. 

4  So  restored  by  Winckler.  6  Ikhmi 's. 

6  See  W.  A.  L,  ii.  69,  No.  5,  13.  Larak  was  the  Larankha  of 
Berossos,  which  the  Greek  writer  seems  to  have  confounded  with  Surippak 
near  Sippara. 


23.  After  his  capture  (Sennacherib)  placed  Bel-ibni  upon 
the  throne  in  BABYLON. 

24.  In  the  first  year  of  Bel-ibni  Sennacherib 

25.  destroyed  the  cities  of  KHIRIMMA  and  KHARARATUM. 

26.  In  the  3d  year  of  Bel-ibni  Sennacherib  into  the  country 

of  ACCAD 

27.  descended,  and  devastated  the  country  of  ACCAD. 

28.  Bel-ibni  and  his  officers  he  transported  into  ASSYRIA. 

29.  For  3  years  Bel-ibni  reigned  over  BABYLON. 

30.  Sennacherib  his  son  Assur-nadin-suma 

31.  placed  upon  the  throne  in  BABYLON. 

32.  In   the   first   year   of  Assur-nadin-suma   Sutruk-[nan]- 

khundu l  king  of  ELAM 

33.  was   seized  by  his  brother   Khallusu  who    closed  the 

gate  before  him.2 

3  4.   For  1 8  years  Sutruk-[nan]khundu  had  reigned  over  ELAM. 
35.    His  brother  Khallusu  sat  upon  the  throne  in  ELAM. 

36.  In  the  6th  year  of  Assur-nadin-suma  Sennacherib 

37.  descended  into  the  country  of  ELAM,  and  the  cities  of 


38.  PELLATUM  and  KHUPAPANU  he  destroyed. 

39.  He  carried  away  their  spoil.     Afterwards  Khallusu  the 

king  of  ELAM 

40.  marched  into  the  country  of  ACCAD  and  entered  Sip- 

para  on  the  march  (?). 

41.  He  killed  some  people  (but)  the  Sun-god  did  not  issue 

forth  from  the  temple  of  E-BABARA. 

42.  He  captured  Assur-nadin-suma  and  he  was  carried  to 


43.  For  6  years  Assur-nadin-suma  reigned  over  BABYLON. 

1  Written    Is-tar-khu-un-du.      The   Susian   inscriptions   of    the    king 
himself  write  the  name  Su-ut-ru-uk-[ANJ-Nakh-khu-un-te. 

2  That  is,  imprisoned  him. 


44.  The  king  of  ELAM  placed  Nergal-yusezib  in  BABYLON 

45.  on  the  throne.     He  caused  [a  revolt]  from  ASSYRIA. 

46.  In  the  ist  year  of  Nergal-yusezib,  on  the   i6th  day  of 

the  month  Tammuz,1 

47.  Nergal-yusezib    captured     NiPUR2    and    occupied    its 

neighbourhood  (?). 

48.  On  the  first  day  of  the  month  Tammuz  the  soldiers  of 

ASSYRIA  had  entered  URUK.S 


1.  They  spoiled  the  gods  belonging  to  URUK  as  well  as  its 


2.  Nergal-yusezib  fled  after  the  Elamites,  and  the  gods  be- 

longing to  URUK 

3.  as  well  as  its  inhabitants  (the  Assyrians)  carried  away. 

On  the  yth  day  of  the  month  Tisri4  in  the  province 
of  NIPUR 

4.  he  fought  a  battle  against  the  soldiers  of  ASSYRIA  and 

was  taken  prisoner  in  the  conflict,  and 

5.  he  was  carried  to  ASSYRIA.     For  i  year  and  6  months 


6.  reigned    over    BABYLON.     On    the    26th    day    of  the 

[month  Tisri  ?] 

7.  against   Khallusu  king  of  ELAM  his  people  revolted, 

[the  gate  before]  him 

8.  they  closed.     They  slew  him.     For  6  years  Khallusu 

reigned  over  ELAM. 

9.  Kudur  in  ELAM  sat  upon  the  throne.     Afterwards  Sen- 


10.  descended  into  ELAM  and  from  the  country  of  RASI  as 

far  as 

11.  Bix-BuRNA 5  he  devastated. 

1 2.  Musezib-Merodach  sat  upon  the  throne  in  BABYLON. 

i  June.  "  Now  Niffer. 

3  Now  Warka,  the  Erech  of  Gen.  x.  10.  4  September. 

5  Bit-Burna  (-KI)  is  called  Bit  Buna  (-KI)  in  the  annals  of  Sennacherib. 


13.  In  the  first  year  of  Musezib-Merodach  on  the  iyth  day 

of  the  month  Ab1 

14.  Kudur   king  of   ELAM  was  seized  in  an  insurrection 

and  killed.     For  10  months 

15.  Kudur  had  reigned  over  ELAM.     Menanu  in  ELAM 

1 6.  sat  upon  the  throne.     I  do  not  know  the  year2  when 

the  soldiers  of  ELAM  and  ACCAD 

1 7.  he  collected  together  and  in  the  city  of  KHALULE  a 

battle  against  ASSYRIA 

1 8.  he  fought,  and  caused  a  revolt  from  Assyria.3 

19.  In  the  4th    year  of   Musezib-Merodach  on  the   i5th 

day  of  Nisan  4 

20.  Menanu  king  of  ELAM  was  paralysed,5  and 

21.  his  mouth  was  seized  and  he  was  deprived  of  speech. 

22.  On  the  first  day  of  the  month  Kisleu6  the  city  [of  BABY- 

LON] was  taken,  Musezib-Merodach 

23.  was  taken  and  led  away  to  ASSYRIA. 

24.  For   4  years  Musezib-Merodach  reigned  over  BABY- 


25.  On  the  7th  day  of  the  month  Adar7  Menanu  king  of 

ELAM  died. 

26.  For  4  years  Menanu  reigned  over  ELAM. 

27.  Khumma-khaldasu  8  in  ELAM  sat  upon  the  throne. 

28.  In  the  eighth  year  of  the  king  there  was  ...  in  Baby- 

lon.    On  the  3d  day  of  the  month  Tammuz 

29.  the  gods  belonging  to  ERECH  went  down  from  the  city 

of  ERIDU  9  to  ERECH. 

1  July. 

2  The  chronicler's  sources  here  failed  him,  but  Winckler  has  pointed 
out  that  the  battle  of  Khalule  must  have  taken  place  in  either  B.C.  691  or 

3  The  annals  of  Sennacherib  claim  a  complete  victory  for  the  Assyrians. 

4  March. 

5  Literally,  "  Tetanus  constricted  him"  (misidtuv  imisid,  cf.  W.  A.  I., 
ii.  27.  47,  48). 

6  November. 

7  February. 

8  Called  Umman-aldas  in  the  Assyrian  inscriptions. 
y  Eridu  was  on  the  coast  of  the  Persian  Gulf. 


30.  On  the  3d  day  of  the  month  Tisri  Khumma-khaldasu 

the  king  of  ELAM  by  the  Fire-god 

31.  was  stricken  and  perished  through  \\\Q  power  (?)  of  the 

god.     For  8  years  Khumma-khaldasu 

32.  reigned  over  ELAM. 

33.  Khumma-khaldasu  the  second  in  the  country  of  ELAM 

sat  upon  the  throne. 

34.  On  the  2oth  day  of  the  month  Tebet,1  Sennacherib 

king  of  ASSYRIA 

35.  by  his  own  son2  was  murdered  in  an  insurrection.    For 

[24]  years  Sennacherib 

36.  reigned   over   Assyria.     From    the    2oth    day   of   the 

month  Tebet  until 

37.  the   2d   day   of   the   month    Adar   is   described   as   a 

period  of  insurrection  in  ASSYRIA. 

38.  On  the  8th  day  of  the  month  Sivan  3  Assur-akhi-iddina 

(Esar-haddon)    his    son    sat    on    the    throne    in 

39.  In  the  first  year  of  Esar-haddon,  Zira-kina-esir4  of  the 

sea  coast,5 

40.  when  he  had  laid  fetters  on  the  city  of  ERECH;  the  city 

of  [ERECH  ?] 

41.  destroyed  in  sight  of  the  officers  of  ASSYRIA  and  [fled]  to 

the  country  of  ELAM. 

42.  In  ELAM  the  king  of  ELAM  took  him  and  [slew  him] 

with  the  sword. 

43.  In  a  month  I  do  not  know  the  officer  called  Gu-cnna 

was  ...  in  the  city  of  NIPUR. 

44.   In  the  month  Elul,°  the  god  Gu'si 7  and  the  gods  [of  the 
city  of  .  .  .] 

1  December. 

2  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  chronicler  speaks  of  only  one  son,  whereas 
two  are  named  in  the  Old  Testament.  3  May. 

4  Called  by  Esar-haddon  Nebo-zira-kina-esir  ("  Nebo  has  directed  the 
established  seed  "),  the  son  of  Merodach-baladan. 

5  That  is,  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  6  August. 

7  "The  god  of  the  favourable  mouth,"  a  local  divinity  (perhaps  be- 
longing to  Sippara,  W.  A.  I.,  v.  31,  30),  and  identified  with  Uras  (W.  A. 
I.,  ii.  57,  54). 


45.  proceeded  to  DUR-ILI  ;  [the  gods  of ] 

46.  proceeded  to  DUR-SARGON 

47.  In  the  month  Adar  the  heads  of 

48.   In  the  second  year  the  major-domo 

The  next  two  lines  are  destroyed. 

Rev. — COLUMN  iv 

i akhe-sullim  the  Gu-enna. 

2.  ...   [the  Gimirjri J  marched  against  ASSYRIA  and  in 

ASSYRIA  were  slain. 

3.  ...  the  city  of  SIDON  was  taken  ;  its  spoil  was  carried 


4.  The  major-domo  mustered  a  gathering  in  ACCAD. 

5.  In  the  5th  year  on  the  26.  day  of  the  month  Tisri  the 

Assyrian  soldiers  BAZZA  2 

6.  occupied.     In  the  month  Tisri  the  head  of  the  king  of 

the  country  of  SIDON 

7.  was  cut  off,  and  brought  to  Assyria.     In  the  month 

Adar  the  head  of  the  king 

8.  of  the  countries  of  GUNDU  and  'Si'sft  3  was  cut  off  and 

brought  to  ASSYRIA. 

9.  In  the  6th  year  the  king  of  ELAM  entered  SIPPARA. 

He  offered  sacrifices.     The  Sun-god4  from 
10.  the  temple  of  E-BABARA  did  not  issue  forth.    The  Assy- 
rians marched  into  EGYPT.    ETHIOPIA  was  troubled.5 

1  So  restored  by  Winckler.     The  Gimirra  are  the  Gomer  of  the  Old 
Testament,  the  Kimmerians  of  classical  writers. 

2  Apparently  the  district  of  Arabia  Petraea  called  Bazu  by  Esar-haddon, 
Buz  in  the  Old  Testament. 

3  Probably  in  Kilikia. 

4  The  Sun-god  whose  temple  has  been  discovered  by  Mr.  Hormuzd 
Rassam  in  the  mounds  of  Abu-Habba  was  the  patron-deity  of  Sipar  or 
Sippara.      Besides  "  Sippara  of  the  Sun-god,"  there  was  a  neighbouring 
city  called  "  Sippara  of  Anunit."     The  two  together  formed  the  Scriptural 
Sepharvaim  or  "  two  Sipparas." 

6  Mehikh  imina. 


11.  Khumma-khaldasu  the  king  of   ELAM  without    being 

sick  died  in  his  palace. 

12.  For  5  years  Khumma-khaldasu  reigned  over  ELAM. 

13.  Urtagu  his  brother  sat  upon  the  throne  in  ELAM. 

14.  In  a  month  I  do  not  know  Nadin-Suma  the  Gu-enna 

15.  and  Kudur  the  son  of  Dakuri  went  to  ASSYRIA. 

1 6.  In  the  7th  year  on  the  5th  day  of  the  month  Adar  the 

soldiers  of  ASSYRIA  marched  into  EGYPT. 

1 7.  In  the  month  Adar  Istar  of  the  city  of  ACCAD  and  the 

gods  of  the  city  of  ACCAD 

1 8.  had  departed  from  the  country  of  ELAM  and  on  the 

loth  day  of  the  month  Adar  entered  the  city  of 

19.  In  the  8th  year  of  Esar-haddon  in  the  month  Tebet 

on  a  day  of  which  the  date  has  been  lost 1 

20.  the  country  of  the  RURIZA  was  occupied;  its  spoil  was 

carried  away. 

21.  In  the  month  Kisleu  its  spoil  was  brought  into  the  city 

of  UR. 

22.  On  the  5th  day  of  the  month  Adar  the  wife  of  the 

king  died. 

23.  In  the  tenth  year  in  the  month  Nisan  the  soldiers  of 

ASSYRIA  marched  into  Egypt.2 

24.  On  the  3d  day  of  the  month  Tammuz  and  also  on 

the  1 6th  and  i8th  days 

25.  three  times  the  Egyptians  were  defeated  with  heavy 


26.  On  the  22d  day  Memphis,4  the  royal  city,  was  cap- 


2  7.   Its  king  fled ;  his  son  descended  into  the  country  of 

1  In  the  history  from  which  the  chronicler  derived  his  account. 

2  The   chronicler  notes  here  that  the  last  character  in   the  line  was 
wanting  in  his  copy. 

3  Literally,  "  massacres  took  place  in  Egypt." 

4  Written  Mcmbi. 


28.   Its  spoil  was  carried  away;  [its]  men  were  [enslaved]; 
its  goods  were 

29.  In  the  nth  year  the  king  [remained]  in  ASSYRIA;  his 
officers  . 

30.  In  the  1 2th  year  the  king  of  ASSYRIA 

31.  On  the  march  he  fell  ill,  and  died  on  the  loth  day  of 

the  month  Marchesvan.1 

32.  For  12  years  Esar-haddon  reigned  over  ASSYRIA. 

33.  Saul-suma-yukina    in    BABYLON,     Assur-bani-pal     in 

ASSYRIA,  his  two  sons,  sat  on  the  throne. 

34.  In    the    accession   year    of   Saul-suma-yukina    in    the 

month  lyyar,2 

35.  Bel  and  the  gods  of  ACCAD  from  the  city  of  ASSUR 

36.  had  gone  forth  and  on  the  nth  day  of  the   month 

lyyar  had  entered  into  BABYLON. 

37.  In  that  year  [against]  the  city  of  KlRMTUM8  [there  was 

war]  ;  its  king  is  conquered. 

38.  On  the  2oth  day  of  the  month  Tebet  Bel-edir-;«V  (?) 

in  BABYLON  is  seized  and  put  to  death. 

39.  The  first  part  (of  the  chronicle)  has  been  written  like 

its  original  and  has  been  made  public. 

40.  The  tablet  of  Ana-Bel-KAN  the  son  of  Libludhu 

41.  the  son  of  Nis-Sin,  by  the  hand  of  Ea-iddin  the  son  of 

42.  Ana-Bel-KAN  the  son  of  Libludhu  of  Babylon, 

43.  the  5th  day  of  the  month  .  .  .   the  22d  year  of  Darius 

king  of  BABYLON, 

44.  the  king  of  the  world. 

1  October.  2  April. 

3  Apparently  the  city  of  Karbat  in  Northern    Egypt,   conquered  by 
Assur-bani-pal  at  the  commencement  of  his  reign. 



Obv. — COLUMN    I 

About  forty  lines  lost. 

1.  [?  Ur-Damu.     Acc^\  "  Man  of  the  goddess  GULA." 

2.  [?  Babar-uru.     Accl\  "  The  Sun-god  protects." 

3.  [Ur-  .  .]la.     Ace.  "  Man  of  the  Moon-god." 

4.  [Ur-]Babara.     Ace.  "  Man  of  the  Sun-god." 

5.  [Is-ki-]pal.     Ace.  "  Sweeper  away  of  the  hostile 


6.  [Gul-ki-]sar.     Ace.  "  Destroyer  of  hosts." 

7.  A-[dara]-kalama.     Ace.       "  Son  of  the  god  EA  king  of 

the  land." 

8.  A-kur-du-ana.     Ace.  "  Son  of  BEL  (the  mountain) 

of  the  treasury  of  heaven." 

9.  Lugal-ginna.     Ace.  "  Established  king "(Sargon).2 

10.  The   queen   Azag-Bau.      "  The  goddess  BAU  is  holy." 


1 1 .  These  are  the  kings  who  after  the  flood  are  not  de- 

scribed in  chronological  order. 

1 2.  Khammu-ragas.     Kas?       "  Of  a  large  family." 

13.  Ammi-didugga.     Kas.        "Of  an  established  family." 

14.  Kur-gal-zu.     Kas.  "  Be  a  shepherd." 

1  That  is,  Accado-Sumerian. 

2  The  name  of  the  king  was  really  Sarganu  (perhaps  of  the  same  origin 
as  the  Biblical  Serug),  but  his  Accadian  subjects  misunderstood  it,  turning 
it  into  Sarru-kinu,    "established  king,"   which  was  written  in  Sumerian 

3  That  is,  Kassite  or  Kossoean. 


15.  Simmas-sipak.     Kas. 

1 6.  Ulam-bur-yas.     Kas. 

17.  Nazi-Mumdas.      Kas. 

1 8.  Meli-Sipak.     Kas. 

19.  Burna-bur-yas.     Kas. 

20.  Kara-Urus.     Kas. 

"  Offspring  of  MERODACH." 
"  Offspring  of  the  lord  of  the 


"The  shadow  of  URAS." 
"  Man  of  MERODACH." 
"  Servant  [of  the  lord  of  the 

"  Minister  of  [BEL]." 


About  thirty -three  lines  are  lost. 

i [an-]khegal.   Ace.      "With  MERODACH  is  life." 

2 [an-]khegal.   Ace.      "With    MERODACH    is   ver- 

3.  Lu-Silig-lu-sar.     Ace.  "  Man  of  MERODACH." 

4.  Un-kur-Silig-alim.     Ace.      "The   lord  of  the  land    is 

"  The  closer  of  the  mouth  is 


"  MERODACH    is    an    over- 
shadowing god." 

7.  Sazu-ap-tila-nen-gu.  Ace.      "MERODACH    has    declared 

life  to  him." 

8.  Ur-Nin-din-bagga.    Ace.      "  Man  of  GULA  [the  goddess 

of  life  and  death]." 
"  Man  of  GULA." 
"(Man    of)   the    god    PAP- 


"  May  his  name  live." 
"The    Moon -god    has   be- 

5.  Gu-sermal-Tutu.     Ace. 

6.  Sazu-[AN]kusvu.     Ace. 

9.   Khumeme.     Ace. 
10.   Dili-khidu.     Ace. 

1 1 .  Mu-na-tila.     Ace. 

12.  Nannak-satu.     Ace. 


13.  Nannak-agal-duabi.  Ace.      "The  Moon-god  is   strong 

over  all." 

14.  Labar-Nu-dimmud.  Ace.      "Servant  of  EA  [lord  of  the 


15.  Urudu-man-sun.     Ace.        "The  god  NUSKU  has  given." 

1  Literally  "  the  messenger  of  the  treasury  (of  heaven)." 
VOL.  I  D 



1  6.  Kud-ur-Alima.     Ace. 

17.  Dun-aga-ba-khe-til.  Ace. 

1  8.  Damu-mu-as-khe-gal. 

1  9.  Dun-gal-tur-tae.     Ace. 

20.  Tutu-bul-anta-gal.     Ace. 

2  1  .  Dugga-makh-Sazu.   Ace. 

22.  Khedu-lamma-ra.     Ace. 

23.  Mul-khe-sal.     Ace. 

24.  Dimir-Uru-du. 

25.  Dimir-Uruk-du.     Ace. 

26.  Dimir-Erida-du-ru.   Ace. 

11  Sweet  are  the  loins  of  BEL." 
"May  BAU  vivify  her  womb." 
"  May  GULA  be  one  name." 

"  May   BAU  establish   great 

and  small." 
"O  MERODACH  as  a  comrade 

spare  her  (?)." 
"  Supreme    is    the  word    of 


"PAP-SUKAL  is  the  colossos." 
"  May  BEL  be  exalted." 
"The  Moon-god  as  son  [of 

the  city  UR]." 
"  The  god  who  is  the  son  of 

"EA  [as  son  of  ERIDU,  the 


The  next  two  lines  are  destroyed. 

Rev.  —  COLUMN  in 
The  first  two  lines  are  destroyed. 

i a-edina.     Ace.         "The  choir  of  the  goddess 


2.  'Si-ru.     Ace.  "  BEL  has  created." 

3.  Kur-nigin-garra- gurus-      "  URAS  is  their  first-born." 

nene.     Ace. 

4.  Uras-saglitar1-zae-men.      "  URAS,  thou  art  overseer." 


5.  Uras  -  qalzi  -  nes  -  kiam  -     "URAS  who  loves  constancy." 

mama.     Ace. 

6.  Mul-lil-ki-bi-gi.     Ace.          "  BEL  of  Nipur  has  returned 

to  his  place." 

7.  Laghlaghghi-Gar.    Ace.       "  NEBO  illuminates." 

8.  Kur-gal-nin-mu-pada.      "  The  great  mountain  (BEL) 

Ace.  records  the  name." 

1  The  correct  reading  of  this  word  is  doubtful. 


9.  Aba-Sanabi-dari.     Ace. 

10.  Aba-Sanabi-diri.     Ace. 

11.  Es-Guzi-gin-du.     Ace. 

12.   Khu-un-zuh.     Ace. 
1  3.   Nab-sakh-menna.     Ace. 
14.   Massu-gal-Babara-  gude. 

15.   Ur-Sanabi.      Ace. 

1  6.   Lu-Damu.     Ace. 

17.  Tutul-Savul.     ^. 

1  8.  Nin-sakh-gu  -  nu-  tatal. 

19.  Agu-sag-algi.     Ace. 

20.  Agu-ba-tila.     Ace. 

21.  Larru-ningub-aL 

22.  Lubar-E-gir-azagga. 

23.  Bad-Mullilla. 
2  4.   Nanak-gula. 

25.  .    .   .    nu-laragh-danga- 

su-mu-aldibba.     Ace. 

26.  [Es-Guzi-]kharsag-men. 


"  Who  is  like  BEL  a  bride- 

"  Who  is  like  BEL  (the  lord) 
of  counsel." 

"The  temple  of  E-SAGGIL 
the  establishment  of  the 

"  BEL  who  knows  mankind." 

"BEL,  prosper  me." 

"What  is  shorn  by  RIMMON." 

"The  man  of  EA." 
"  The  man  of  GULA." 
"The Sun-god  has  mustered." 
"  PAP  -  SUKAL  who    changes 

not  (his)  command." 
"The  Moon-god  has  given 

a  son."1 
"  May  the  Moon-god  vivify 

what  is  below  him." 
"O  BEL,   defend  the  land- 

"Servant  of  NERGAL." 
"  Minister  of  BEL." 
"  The  Moon-god  is  great." 
"  (O  Sun-)god,  in  difficulties 
and     dangers     take     my 
"E-SAGGIL  is  our  mountain." 

More  than  thirty  lines  are  destroyed  here. 


1.  Ulam-Urus.     Kas. 

2.  Meli-Khali.     Kas. 

"  Offspring  of  BEL." 
"  Man  of  GULA." 

1  The  Assyro-Babylonian  translation  is  a  paraphrase,  as  in  some  other 
instances.  The  Accado-Sumerian  compound  is  literally  :  ' '  The  Moon-god 
has  established  a  head." 


3.  Meli-Sumu.     Kas. 

4.  Meli-Sibarru.     Kas. 

5.  Meli-Sakh.     Kas. 

6.  Nimgirabi.     Kas. 

7.  Nimgirabi-Sakh.     Kas. 

8.  Nimgirabi-Buryas.   Kas. 

9.  Kara-Buryas.     Kas. 

10.  Kara-Sakh. 

11.  Nazi-Sipak. 

12.  Nazi-Buryas. 


"  Man    of   the    god    SUQA- 


"  Man  of  the  god  SIMALIA." 
"  Man  of  the  Sun-god." 
"  The  merciful." 
"  Merciful  is  the  Sun-god." 
"  Merciful  is  [BEL  the  lord 

of  the  world]." 
"  Servant  of  [BEL  lord  of  the 


"  Servant  of  the  Sun-god." 
["  Shadow  of  MERODACH."] 
["Shadow  of  BEL  lord]  of 

the  world." 

The  remaining  eight  lines  arc  lost. 




t.  When  the  moon  at  its  setting  with  the  colour  of  a  dust- 
cloud2  filled  the  crescent,  the  moon  was  favourable 
for  Sargon  who  at  this  season 

z.  marched  against  the  country  of  ELAM  and  subjugated 
the  men  of  ELAM. 

5.  Misery  (?)  he  brought  upon  them ;  their  food  he  cut 

4.  When  the  moon  at  its  setting  filled  the  crescent  with 

the  colour  of  a  dust-cloud,  and  over  the  face  of  the 
sky  the  colour  extended  behind  the  moon  during 
the  day  and  remained  bright, 

5.  the   moon   was    favourable   for  Sargon   who   marched 

against  the  country  of  [PHCENICIA],  and 

6.  subjugated  the  country  of  PHCENICIA.     His  hand  con- 

quered the  four  quarters  (of  the  world). 

7.  When  the  moon  increased  in  form  on  the  right  hand 
and  on  the  left,  and  moreover  [during]  the  day  the 
finger  reached  over  the  horns,3 

1  W.   A.    I. ,   iv.   34.     The  text  has  been  translated  in  part  by  Mr. 
George   Smith.      The   astrological   notices   with   which    the   account   of 
Sargon' s  campaigns  is  associated  are  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  great 
Chaldean  work  on  astronomy  and  astrology  was  compiled  for  his  library 
at  Accad,  and  that  one  of  the  objects  of  this  work  was  to  trace  a  connec- 
tion between  certain  astronomical  occurrences  and  the  events  which  im- 
mediately followed  them. 

2  Ana  pikhirti-Su  tsirip  zakiki. 

3  The  moon  lay  Oil  its  back,  and  the  distance  from  the  extremity  of 
one  horn  to  that  of  another  was  as  much  as  a  span. 


8.  the  moon  was  favourable  for  Sargon  who  at  this  season 

produced /tfjy  (?)  [in]  BABYLON,  and 

9.  [like]  dust  the  spoil  of  BAB-DHUNA  was  carried  away 


i  o.  ...  he  made  ACCAD  a  city ;  the   city  of  ....  he 

called  its  name; 
1 1.   [the  men  of  ....   in  the]  midst  he  caused  to  dwell. 

1 2.  [When  the  moon] on  the  left  the  colour  of  fire 

[on]  the  left  of  the  planet,  and 

13.  [the  moon  was  favourable  to  Sargo]nwhoat  this  season 

against  the  country  of  PHOENICIA 

14.  [marched  and  subjugated  it].     The  four  quarters  (of 

the  world)  his  hand  conquered. 

15.  [When  the  moon] behind  the  moon  the 

four  heads  were  placed, 

1 6.  [the  moon  was  favourable  to  Sargon  who  at  this  season] 

marched  [against]  the  country  of  PHOENICIA  and 

1 7.  [subjugated  the  country  of  PHOENICIA.]    His  [enemies  ?] 

he  smote ;  his  heroes 
1 8 in  the  gate  of  its1  rising. 

19.  [When  the  moon  was  fixed?]  and  a  span [the 

moon  was  favourable  to  Sargon]  as  for  whom  at  this 
season  the  goddess  [ISTAR] 

20.  [with   favours]  filled  for  him  his  hand the 

goddess  ISTAR  [all  countries] 

21.  caused  him  to  conquer ;  against  Tiri  (?)  .... 

22.  [When  the  moon]  appeared  [like]  a  lion,  the  moon  was 

favourable  to  Sargon  who  at  this  season 

23.  was  [very]  exalted  and  a  rival  (or)  equal  had  not;  his 

own  country  was  at  peace.     Over 

24.  [the  countries]  of  the  sea  of  the  setting  sun  2  he  crossed 

and  for  3  years  at  the  setting  sun 

1  The  Sun-god  must  be  referred  to.  -  The  Mediterranean. 


25.  [all  countries]  his  hand  conquered.     Every  place   to 

form  but  one  (empire)  he  appointed.      His  images 
at  the  setting  sun 

26.  he  erected.     Their  spoil  he  caused  to  pass  over  into 

the  countries  of  the  sea.1 

2  7.  [When  the  moon  on]  the  right  hand  was  like  the  colour 
of  gall,  and  there  was  no  finger ; 2  the  upper  part 
was  long  and  the  moon  was  setting  (?), 

28.  [the  moon  was  favourable  for]  Sargon  who  enlarged  his 

palace  of  Delight  (?)  by  5  mitkhu,  and 

29.  established  the  chiefs  [in  it]  and  called  it  the  House  of 


30.  When  the  moon  was  like  a  cloud '(?),  like  the  colour  of 

gall,  and  there  was  no  finger ;  2  on  the  right  side  was 
the  colour  of  a  sword ;  the  circumference  of  the  left 
side  was  visible ; 

31.  towards  its  face  on  the  left  the  colour  extended;  the 

moon  was  favourable  for  Sargon  against  whom  at 
this  season  Kastubila  of  the  country  of  KAZALLA 
rebelled  and  against  KAZALLA 

32.  (Sargon)  marched  and  he  smote  their  forces ;  he  ac- 

complished their  destruction. 

33.  Their  mighty  army  he  annihilated  ;  he  reduced  KAZALLA 

to  dust  and  ruins. 

34.  The  station  of  the  birds  4  he  overthrew. 

35.   When  the  moon  was  like  a  cloud  (?),  like  the  colour  of 

1  We  infer  from  this  that  Sargon  had  crossed  over  into  Cyprus,  and 
there  erected  an  image  of  himself.     This  might  explain  why  his  later  name- 
sake Sargon  sent  to  the  island  a  monument,    which  is  now  in  Berlin. 
General  di  Cesnola  brought  back  from  Cyprus  a  Babylonian  cylinder  of 
haematite  bearing  the  inscription,  "  Abil-Istar,  the  son  of  Ilu-Balidh,  the 
servant  of  the  deified  Naram-Sin."     The  cylinder  was  probably  executed 
either  during  the  reign  of  Naram-Sin,  or  shortly  afterwards,  as  the  cult  of 
the  king  is  not  likely  to  have  continued  after  the  fall  of  his  dynasty. 

2  It  could  not  be  measured.  3   "Thus  he  has  appointed." 

4  What  this  refers  to  it  is  impossible  to  say.    The  expression  can  hardly 
be  metaphorical. 


gall,  and  there  was  no  finger  ; l  on  the  right  side  was 
the  colour  of  a  sword ;  the  circumference  of  the  left 
was  visible ; 

36.  and   against  its  face  the  Seven  2  advanced ;  the  moon 

was  favourable  to  Sargon,  against  whom  at  this 

37.  the  elders  of  the  whole  country  revolted  and  besieged 

him  in  the  city  of  ACCAD  ;  but 

38.  Sargon  issued  forth  and  smote  their  forces ;  their  de- 

struction he  accomplished. 


1.  Their  numerous  soldiery  he  massacred;  the  spoil  that 

was  upon  them  he  collected. 

2.  "  The  booty  of  Istar  !  "  he  shouted. 

3.  When  the  moon  had  two  fingers,  and  swords  were  seen 

on  the  right  side  and  the  left,  [and]  might  and  peace 
were  on  the  left 

4.  its  hand  presented  a  sword ;  the  sword  in  its  left  hand 

was  of  the  colour  of  'sukhuruni ;  the  point  was  held 
in  the  left  hand  and  there  were  two  heads ; 

5.  [the  moon]  was  favourable  for  Sargon  who  at  this  season 

6.  subjected  the  men  of  [the  country]  of  'Su-EDiN  3  in  its 

plenitude  to  the  sword,  and 

7.  Sargon  caused  their  seats  to  be  occupied,  and 

8.  smote  their  forces ;  their  destruction  he  accomplished ; 

their  mighty  army 

9.  he  cut  off,  and  his  troops  he  collected ;  into  the  city  of 

ACCAD  he  brought  (them)  back., 

10.  [When  the  moon]  had  two  fingers  and  on  the  right 
side  it  was  of  the  colour  of  a  sword  and  on  the  left 
it  was  visible ; 

1  It  could  not  be  measured. 

2  The  Seven  Evil  Spirits  who  were  supposed  to  cause  eclipses  of  the 

3  "The  plain  of  the  "Suti,"   or  nomad   tribes  on  the  eastern  side  of 


1 1.  [and  against  its  face]  the  Seven  advanced  ;  (its)  appear- 

ance was  of  the  colour  of  gall ;  the  moon  was  favour- 
able for  Naram-Sin 

1 2.  [who  at]  this  season  marched  against  the  city  of  APIRAK. 


1 3.  [utterly]  destroyed  it :  Ris-Rimmon  the  king  of  APIRAK 

14.  [he  overthrew],  and  the  city  of  APIRAK  his  hand  con- 


15.  [When  the  moon] on  the  right  it  was  of  the 

colour  of  a  sword,  and  on  the  left  it  was  visible ; 

1 6.  [and  against  its  face  the  Seven  advanced  ?] ;  the  moon 

was  favourable  for  Naram-Sin  who  at  this  season 

1 7.  marched  [against  the  country  of  MA]GANNA  1  and  seized 

the  country  of  MAGANNA,  and 
1 8 the  king  of  MAGANNA  his  hand  captured. 

19.   [When  against  the  moon]  the  Seven  were  banded,  [and] 

behind  it 

20 never  may  there  be  a  son  (?) 

1  The  Sinaitic  Peninsula. 


TllE  names  of  Telloh  and  of  the  French  Consul  M.  de 
Sarzec  are  no  longer  strange  to  the  Orientalist  of 
to-day.  The  situation  of  the  mounds,  which  have 
hidden  and  preserved  to  our  day  the  ruins  of  one  of 
the  most  ancient  centres  of  civilisation,  is  well  known. 
The  history  of  the  excavations  has  been  often  written, 
and  I  shall  not  dwell  upon  it.  Nor  shall  I  discuss 
the  results  of  these  excavations  from  the  point  of  view 
of  art  or  archaeology.  This  work  has  been  undertaken 
by  a  master  hand  in  the  Dfaouvertes  en  C/ialdee.1  At 
present  I  shall  only  essay  to  follow  in  the  steps  of 
Dr.  Oppert  by  making  the  monuments  of  stone  and 
brick  tell  their  own  tale,  and  by  questioning  them 
summarily  on  the  geography,  history,  politics,  and 
religion  of  their  age  and  country.2 

I.  The  first  question  one  thinks  of  asking  is  what 
was  the  name  of  that  flourishing  city  of  ancient 
Chaldaea  which  the  Bedouin  now  knows  only  as 

1  See  also   M.   L6on   Heuzey's  Un  Palais  Chaldden  (Paris,    Leroux, 

2  On   all   these    points,    see    Rommel's    Geschichte   Babylonicns   und 
Assyriens  (Berlin,  1885-87). 


Telloh  ?  Considering  that  all  the  princes  whose 
names  occur  on  the  monuments  are  entitled  "kings" 
or  "  patesis"  of  Shirpurla-ki,  it  was  generally  answered 
at  first :  This  city  was  Shirpurla.1  As  often  hap- 
pens, the  first  impression  has  proved  to  be  correct. 
I  was  wrong  in  questioning  the  identification  in  an 
article  in  the  Zeitschrift  fur  KeilschriftforscJiung 
(i.  p.  151).  I  had  remarked  that  except  in  the  title 
of  the  kings  and  patesis  the  name  of  Shirpurla -ki 
appeared  very  rarely  in  the  inscriptions  of  Telloh, 
and  that  whenever  a  prince  mentioned  the  site  where 
a  temple  was  erected  he  gave  it  another  name — 
Girsu-ki,  Uru-azagga,  Nina-ki,  Gishgalla-ki.  I  now 
believe,  and  shall  attempt  to  prove,  that  Telloh  really 
represents  the  ruins  of  Shirpurla;  that  it  was  the 
general  name  of  a  great  centre  of  population,  of  which 
Girsu-ki,  Uru-azagga,  Nina-ki,  and  Gishgalla-ki  were 
only  divisions  or  quarters. 

Let  us  first  remove  a  hypothesis  which  could  pre- 
sent itself  to  the  mind.  Might  not  Shirpurla  be  the 
name  of  a  country,  of  which  Girsu-ki  and  the  three 
other  cities  mentioned  above  were  the  chief  places  ? 
This  supposition  is  forbidden  by  the  inscription  of 
the  statue  F  of  Gudea,  which  states  formally  that 
Shirpurla  was  the  beloved  "city"  of  the  goddess 
Gatumdug  (col.  i.,  cases  15,  16).  It  is  also  forbidden 

1  According  to  Mr.  Pinches  (Guide  to  the  Kouyunjik  Gallery,  London, 
1885,  p.  7,  note  2),  Shir-pur-la-ki  would  be  an  ideographic  mode  of 
writing  the  word  Lagash.  We  should  then  perhaps  have  to  compare 
W.  A.  I. ,  ii.  52,  a  6^,  which  seems  to  connect  a  city  Lagashu-ki  with  Urama 
or  "Ur"  (?). 


by  W.  A.  I.,  ii.  61,  2,  37,  where  we  learn  that  a  temple 
otherwise  unknown  was  situated  in  Shirpurla-ki. 

The  list  of  temples  given  in  this  passage  might 
open  the  door  to  another  hypothesis,  which  must  be 
removed  in  its  turn,  for  it  would  be  inconsistent  with 
the  relations  existing  between  Shirpurla  and  the  four 
other  towns.  In  lines  34  and  35  two  temples  are 
named  as  temples  of  Girsu-ki.  If  Girsu-ki  had  been 
only  a  quarter  of  Shirpurla,  would  there  not  be  some 
inconsistency  on  the  part  of  the  Assyrian  scribe  in 
saying :  Such  and  such  temples  belong  to  Girsu-ki, 
such  another  to  Shirpurla-ki  ?  Might  one  not  con- 
clude that  Shirpurla  and  the  four  other  towns  were 
separate  cities  ? 

Now  it  is  certain  that  Gudea  tells  us  (in  the 
inscription  on  statue  C)  that  he  has  constructed  the 
temple  of  E-anna  for  the  goddess  Ninni  or  Istar  in 
Girsu-ki  (col.  3,  cases  11,  12).  We  further  know  that 
the  same  Istar,  the  presiding  deity  of  Erech,  had  a 
celebrated  temple  in  that  city  which  also  bore  the 
name  of  E-anna.  Moreover,  certain  texts  of  Gudea 
and  Dungi,  which  mention  the  construction  of  temples 
in  Girsu-ki,  come,  it  is  believed,  from  other  sites 
than  Telloh,  some  from  Warka  or  Erech,  others  from 
Babylon,  from  Zerghul  and  from  Tel-Eed.  But  this 
proves  nothing  in  favour  of  Erech,  and  still  less  against 
Telloh.  From  the  fact  that  Istar  had  a  temple  named 
E-anna  at  Erech,  we  cannot  infer  that  the  same  god- 
dess had  not  a  temple  of  the  same  name  in  another 
city.  We  know  that  Nebo  had  a  temple  called 


E-Zida   in    Borsippa,   and   there  were   at  least  two 
others  of  the  same  name  at  Babylon  and  Calah. 

We  cannot  look  for  Nina-Id,  any  more  than  Girsu- 
ki,  outside  Telloh,  or  identify  it  with  the  Assyrian 
Nineveh.1  As  for  the  inscription  cited  by  Dr.  Hommel 
in  support  of  the  contrary  view,  the  Museum  of  the 
Louvre  possesses  several  similar  ones  discovered  by 
M.  de  Sarzec  at  Telloh.  If  the  text  translated  by 
Dr.  Hommel  does  not  come  from  Telloh,  it  must  have 
been  moved  from  its  original  place,  like  the  tablet  of 
black  stone,  with  a  Semitic  inscription  of  Dungi, 
believed  to  have  been  found  at  Nineveh,  and  accord- 
ingly quoted  by  Dr.  Hommel  to  show  that  the  empire 
of  the  kings  of  Ur  extended  as  far  as  that  city.  The 
text  itself  of  the  inscription,  imperfectly  copied  by 
Lenormant,  proves  that  its  primitive  resting-place  was 
Cutha.2  But  yet  more.  Two  princes  of  Shirpurla, 
Uru-Kagina  in  his  barrel-inscription,  and  Gudea  in  the 
cylinder-inscription  A,  state  that  they  have  worked 
upon  a  canal,  Nina-ki-tum-a,  "the  favourite  river  of 
the  goddess  Nina."  In  order  to  find  this  canal  I 
believe  it  will  be  useless  to  ascend  as  far  as  the 
Khausser,  the  river  of  Nineveh,  if  we  compare  with 
the  context  these  lines  of  M.  de  Sarzec :  "  In  going 
from  the  Shatt-el-Hai'  to  the  ruins,  at  500  metres 
from  the  enceinte  of  Telloh  we  meet  with  the  bed  of 
an  immense  canal,  still  visible,  though  filled  with 
sand,  running  from  N.W.  to  S.E.  It  is  possibly  the 

1  The  pronunciation  of  the  name  of  the  goddess  Nina  and  of  the  city 
called  after  her  is  still  problematical. 

2  See  the  Zeitschrift  fur  Assyriologie,  iii.,  p.  94. 


original  channel  of  the  Shatt-el-Hai',  possibly  also 
some  canal  derived  from  that  great  artery,  and  intended 
to  supply  the  city  with  water."  l 

Uru-azagga  and  Gishgalla-ki  still  remain.  The 
first  must  be  sought  near  Telloh,  if  not  in  Telloh 
itself,  since  M.  de  Sarzec  has  found  in  the  ruins  :  (i) 
at  least  one  brick  commemorating  the  erection  by 
Gudea  of  a  temple  of  the  goddess  Gatumdug  situated 
in  Uru-azagga ; 2  (2)  the  forepart  of  a  lion  or  griffon 
of  calcareous  stone,  which  bears  the  same  inscription 
as  the  brick  of  Gudea,  some  insignificant  variants 
excepted  ; 3  (3)  a  doorstep  of  the  patesi  Nammaghani, 
intended  for  the  temple  of  the  goddess  Bau,  which  the 
inscriptions  on  several  statues  of  Gudea  place  in  Uru- 
azagga;4  (4)  a  buttress  of  the  patesi  Entena  intended  for 
the  temple  of  the  goddess  Gatumdug  in  Uru-azagga.5 
As  for  Gishgalla-ki,  which  is  known  only  from  two 
passages  in  the  inscription  on  the  statue  of  Ur-Bau, 
one  of  which  calls  the  patesi  "  servant  of  the  divine 
king  of  Gishgalla-ki,"  and  the  other  places  in  Gish- 
galla-ki a  temple  of  the  goddess  Ninni,  its  name  even 
remains  an  obscure  problem.  It  must  have  been 
some  locality  in  Telloh  or  its  immediate  vicinity. 
Otherwise  the  inscription  of  Ur-Bau  would  offer  us 
the  only  example  in  our  texts  of  a  foreign  temple 
constructed  by  the  princes  of  Shirpurla,  and  the  sole 

1  Dfcouvertes  en  Chaldte,  p.  12. 

2  Not  yet  published. 

3  I  owe  my  knowledge  of  this  fact,  as  well  as  of  several  others,  to  the 
kindness  of  M.  Heuzey. 

4  Dtcouvertes  en  Chalctte,  pi.  27,  i. 

5  Not  yet  published. 


example  also  of  the  title  of  "servant"  of  a  foreign 
god  assumed  by  one  of  them. 

It  will  now  be  easy  for  me  to  show  that  the  four 
centres,  Girsu-ki,  Uru-azagga,  Nina-Id,  and  Gishgalla- 
ki,  were  only  quarters .  of  a  large  city,  which  bore  the 
name  of  Shirpurla-ki.  Whenever  the  princes  who 
have  reigned  at  Telloh  wished  to  indicate  the  whole 
of  their  capital  or  their  domain,  we  shall  see  that  they 
called  it  Shirpurla-ki.  Only  when  they  preferred  to 
mark  the  extent  of  their  domain  by  means  of  its 
extreme  or  most  important  points,  or  when  they 
wanted  to  indicate  a  particular  spot,  they  employed 
the  names  Girsu-ki,  Uru-azagga,  Nina-ki,  and  Gish- 

It  is  thus  that  all  call  themselves  "  kings"  or 
"patesis"  of  Shirpurla-ki.  There  is  but  one  excep- 
tion, and  only  in  one  of  the  three  inscriptions  he  has 
left  us  ;  Uru-Kagina  entitles  himself  on  his  cylinder 
"king  of  Girsu-ki."  This  exception  can  be  easily 
explained,  since  Girsu-ki  was  without  doubt  the  most 
important  quarter  of  Shirpurla.  It  is  thus  again  that 
Gudea,  wishing  to  inform  us  what  were  the  distant 
countries  from  which  he  derived  the  materials  neces- 
sary for  the  buildings  of  his  capital,  expresses  himself 
as  follows  :  "  By  the  power  of  Nina  and  Nin-girsu,  to 
Gudea  who  holds  his  sceptre  from  Nin-Girsu,  the 
countries  of  Magan,  Melughgha,  Gubi,  and  Nituk,  rich 
in  trees  of  every  species,  have  sent  him  at  Shirpurla-ki 
ships  laden  with  all  sorts  of  trees"  (statue  D,  col.  4). 
Thus,  too,  if  I  understand  the  passage  rightly,  after 


having  enumerated  the  reforms  which  followed  his 
accession  to  the  throne,  he  describes  the  peace  result- 
ing therefrom  to  his  country :  "  On  the  territory  of 
Shirpurla-ki  no  one  has  sued  him  who  has  right 
on  his  side  ;  a  brigand  has  entered  the  house  of  no 
one"  (statue  B,  col.  5). 

But  if  the  same  Gudea  wants  to  insist  on  the  peace 
which  he  has  given  his  country,  and  to  prove  that  no 
part  of  his  city  was  excluded  from  his  care,  he  tells 
us:  "Gudea,  patesi  of  Shirpurla-ki,  has  proclaimed 
peace  from  Girsu-ki  to  Uru-azagga"  (statue  G,  col.  2). 
So,  too,  in  describing  the  position  of  a  temple,  the 
princes  of  Telloh  never  say  that  it  was  situated  in 
Shirpurla,  but  more  precisely  in  Girsu-ki,  in  Uru- 
azagga,  in  Nina-ki,  or  in  Gishgalla-ki. 

It  is  very  difficult  at  present  to  determine  the 
approximate  situation  in  Telloh  of  these  different 
quarters.  I  will,  however,  make  some  suggestions  in 
regard  to  them. 

The  four  tels  or  mounds  on  the  west  side  of  Telloh 
perhaps  represent  the  site  of  Nina-ki.  From  one  of 
them  M.  de  Sarzec  has  recovered  the  beautiful  bull 
and  the  tablet  of  black  stone  which  bear  the  name  of 
Dungi,  and  mention  the  erection  of  the  temple  of  the 
goddess  Nina.  All  the  other  tels,  including  the  great 
tel  on  which  stood  the  palace,  appear  to  have  formed 
part  of  Girsu-ki.  It  is  in  this  region  that  bronzes 
and  votive  tablets  have  been  discovered  with  the 
names  of  the  god  Nin-Girsu  and  of  his  sons  Gal-alim 
and  Dun-shagana ;  now  we  cannot  doubt,  though  we 


are  not  directly  assured  of  it,  that  the  temples  of 
these  three  gods  were  situated  in  Girsu-ki.  As  for 
Uru-azagga,  it  is  not  certain  that  it  lay  in  the  part  of 
Telloh  excavated  by  M.  de  Sarzec.  With  the  exception 
of  some  statues,  which  have  certainly  not  been  found 
in  their  original  position,  the  monuments  intended, 
according  to  their  inscriptions,  for  this  quarter  of 
Shirpurla-ki  are  little  numerous  ;  and  some,  if  not 
all,  appear  to  have  been  displaced,  and,  to  use  the 
expression  of  M.  Heuzey,  to  have  been  replaced  by 
the  successive  occupants  of  Telloh,  which  was  still  in- 
habited in  the  Parthian  epoch.  Nothing  can  be  said 
concerning  Gishgalla-ki,  which  is  mentioned  only  on 
the  statue  of  Ur-Bau. 

II.  We  now  possess  the  names  of  twelve  or  thirteen 
princes  of  Shirpurla,  four  or  five  of  whom  bear  the 
title  of  "king,"  and  eight  the  title  of  "patesi."  M. 
Heuzey  has  shown  by  arguments  derived  from  the 
more  archaic  character  of  their  monuments  and  writ- 
ing that  the  most  ancient  of  these  princes  were  the 
kings.  He  has  also  established  that  among  the 
patesis  the  group  comprising  Entena  and  En-anna- 
tumma  was  the  oldest  The  script  used  by  these 
patesis  is  still  linear  like  that  of  the  kings,  and  not 
yet  cuneiform  like  that  of  the  later  princes.  Of 
course  I  refer  only  to  the  inscriptions  engraved  on 
hard  materials,  bronze  or  stone.  For  we  possess  a 
clay  cylinder  of  the  king  Uru-Kagina,  where  the 
wedge  already  appears  as  distinctly  as  on  the  bricks 
and  cylinders  of  Gudea.  We  know  that  it  is  just  by 
VOL.  I  E 


the  form  of  the  stylus  employed  by  the  scribes  when 
writing  upon  soft  clay  that  the  wedge  which  charac- 
terises the  cuneiform  script  is  explained.  It  is  by 
imitation  only  that  it  has  passed  from  writing  on  clay 
to  writing  on  stone. 

The  dynasties  of  Telloh  were  the  following  : 

(1)  Kings  of  Shirpurla-ki : — 

The  earliest  king  known  is  perhaps  Ur-Nina,  "  the 
man  of  Nina,"  of  whom  we  have  three  inscriptions. 
This  prince  was  the  son  of  a  personage  called  Nini- 
ghal-gin  (the  reading  Ghal-gin  being  uncertain).  It  is 
doubtful  whether  Nini-ghal-gin  had  himself  been  king, 
since  his  son  never  gives  him  the  title  of  sovereign. 

After  Ur-Nina,  according  to  the  "  Stele  of  the  Vul- 
tures," his  son,  A-Kurgal  ("  the  son  of  Bel  "  ?)  reigned. 

Another  passage  in  the  Stele  of  the  Vultures 
appears  to  mention  a  certain  Igi-ginna  ("  he  who  goes 
before  ")  as  king  of  Shirpurla. 

So  far  as  we  can  judge  from  the  writing,  it  was 
after  these  monarchs  that  Uru-kagina  reigned,1  whose 
three  inscriptions  have  come  down  to  us.  Two  of 
them  call  him  "  king  of  Shirpurla  "  ;  in  a  third,  on  a 
clay  cylinder,  he  bears,  as  was  first  recognised  by  Dr. 
Oppert,  the  title  of  "  king  of  Girsu-ki."  : 

(2)  Patesis  of  Shirpurla-ki : — 

The  first  series  comprises  three  patesis,  whose  suc- 

1  See  licuzey  :  "  Un  nouvcau  roi  de  Tello,"  in  the  Revue  Archdologiquc 
of  1884. 

-  It  would  seem  that  a  prince  more  ancient  than  Uru-Kagina  and  per- 
haps  as  ancient  as  Ur-Nina  bore  the  title  of  "  patesi"  and  not  of  "  king." 
But  his  name  still  remains  unknown.  See  below,  p.  67. 


cession  cannot  at  present  be  exactly  determined. 
The  museum  of  the  Louvre  possesses  a  portion  of  a 
buttress  inscribed  with  the  name  of  a  patesi  Entena, 
who  does  not  record  the  name  of  his  father,  and 
another  block  bearing  the  name  of  a  patesi  En-anna- 
tumma,  son  of  a  patesi  Entena.  As  the  British 
Museum  possesses  a  block  inscribed  by  a  patesi 
Entena,  son  of  a  patesi  En-anna-tumma,  we  have  a 
choice  of  two  hypotheses.  Either  the  patesi  Entena 
of  the  British  Museum  is  the  same  as  the  patesi 
Entena  of  the  Louvre,  in  which  case  the  succession 
will  be:  En-anna-tumma  I,  Entena,  and  En-anna- 
tumma  II  ;  or  else  the  Entena  of  the  British  Museum 
is  the  grandson  of  that  of  the  Louvre,  the  order  of  the 
patesis  being  Entena  I,  En-anna-tumma,  Entena  II. 

Later  in  date  than  this  family  of  princes  comes 
the  patesi  Ur-Bau  ("  man  of  Bau  ")  whose  statue  is  in 
the  Louvre,  together  with  a  number  of  monuments 
of  less  importance. 

A  short  time  after  Ur-Bau  comes  Gudea  ("  the 
elect"),  followed  by  his  son  and  probable  successor 
Ur-Nin-girsu  ("  man  of  Nin-girsu  ").1  It  is  of  Gudea 
that  the  larger  and  more  important  part  of  the  monu- 
ments of  Telloh  preserve  the  memory :  eight  statues, 
two  large  cylinders  of  clay,  and  hundreds  of  frag- 
ments or  small  texts.  Of  his  successor  we  have  a 
few  bricks  and  a  small  object  of  uncertain  use. 

Here  must  be  placed,  I  believe,  the  patesi  Nam- 

1  Cf.   Ledrain  :   Communication  a  I' Academic  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles- 
Lettres,  i2th  July  1882. 


maghani  ("  His  supremacy")  whose  reign  is  assigned 
by  Dr.  Hommel  to  a  period  before  Ur-Bau.  But 
his  monuments  are  too  few  (only  a  door-step  and 
some  bricks)  to  allow  us  to  determine  with  certainty 
his  relative  date. 

M.  Heuzey  has  also  made  us  acquainted  with  an- 
other patesi,  Luka-ni  ("  His  glory  ").1  His  son  Ghala- 
lam ma,  who  does  not,  like  his  father,  take  the  title  of 
patesi,  offers  homage  in  an  inscription  on  the  fragment 
of  a  statue  to  Dungi,  king  of  Ur.2 

It  is  difficult  to  determine,  even  approximately,  to 
what  remote  epoch  the  dynasties  of  Telloh  must  be 
referred.  We  gather  but  little  from  the  fact  that  the 
son  of  one  of  the  last  patesis  of  Shirpurla  was  the  con- 
temporary of  Dungi.  For  we  cannot  yet  fix  the  age  of 
the  early  kings  of  Ur.  Let  me,  however,  hazard  a 
hypothesis,  in  consideration  of  any  light  it  may  throw 
on  the  dark  problem  of  Chaldean  chronology. 

I  have  already  had  occasion  to  cite  an  inscription 
of  Gudea  (on  statue  D)  in  which  this  patesi  tells  us 
that  he  received  from  "the  countries  of  Magan,  Me- 
lughgha,  Gubi,  and  Nituk,"  vessels  laden  with  all  sorts 
of  trees.  The  situation  of  Nituk  is  known.  It  was 
the  Isle  of  Tilmun3  in  the  Persian  Gulf.  It  is  not 

1  "  Le  Roi  Dounghi "  in  the  Revue  Archdologique,  April  1886. 

2  I  omit  a  patesi  of  Shirpurla,  En-anna,  made  known  to  us  by  George 
Smith  in   his  Early  History  of  Babylonia,  and   two  other  patesis  whose 
names  are  quoted  by  Dr.  Hommel  from  some  seals  (Geschichte  Dab.  und 
Ass.,  pp.  290,  293).     The  text  translated  by  George  Smith  has  not  yet 
been  published,  and  the  reading  of  the  inscriptions  on  the  seals  does  not 
seem  absolutely  certain. 

3  [Identified  with  the  Tylos  of  classical  geography  by  Dr.  Oppert,  and 
with  the  modern  Bahrein  by  Sir  H.  Rawlinson,  though  Professor  Delitzsch 


possible,  in  my  opinion,  to  look  for  Magan  and  Me- 
lughgha  anywhere  else  than  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Sinaitic  Peninsula.1  Gubi,  sometimes  written  Gubin, 
alone  remains,  which  Dr.  Hommel  would  identify 
with  Byblos  in  Phoenicia,  the  Gapuna  of  the  hiero- 
glyphic texts.  I  should,  however,  prefer  to  see  in 
Gubi  a  name  of  Egypt,  and  more  precisely  the  name 
of  Coptos,  the  ancient  Qubti.  Gudea  would  thus  in 
his  list  of  names  have  followed  the  route  of  his 
vessels,  starting  from  the  most  distant  points  to  the 
north  of  the  Red  Sea,  coasting  along  Egypt  and 
turning  round  Arabia.  If  the  identification  of  Gubi 
or  Gubin  with  Qubti  meets  with  the  approval 
of  Egyptologists  and  Assyriologists,  the  reign  of 
Gudea  might  perhaps  be  placed  in  the  interval 
between  the  sixth  Egyptian  dynasty,  when  the 
monuments  of  Pepi  seem  already  to  testify  to  the 
commercial  importance  of  Coptos,2  and  the  eleventh, 
when  the  cities  of  Upper  Egypt  obtained  political 
supremacy.  No  one  of  course  will  dream  of  bringing 
the  reign  of  Gudea  down  to  a  later  date. 

How  must  we  explain  the  fact  that  the  last  princes 
of  Shirpurla  contented  themselves  with  the  title  of 
"  patesi,"  while  the  most  ancient  took  that  of  "  king  "  ? 
I  believe  that  it  is  difficult  not  to  see  in  this  fact  an 
indication  of  the  loss  of  its  earlier  independence  on 

considers  it  to  form  part  of  the  delta  which  has  accumulated  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Euphrates. — Ed.} 

1  This  is  the  opinion  long  ago   maintained  by   Messrs.  Lenormant, 
Oppert,  and  Sayce.       M.    Delattre  has  ably  defended   it  in  the  memoir 
L '  Asie  occidental  dens  les  Inscriptions  Assyriennes,  pp.  149  seq. 

2  See  Maspero  :  Histoire  ancienne  (4th  edit.),  p.  81. 


the  part  of  Shirpurla  and  of  its  subjection  to  some  other 
city,  probably  Ur.  All  the  other  instances  we  have  of 
the  use  of  the  title  of  "  patesi,"  lend  it  the  sense  of  "lieu- 
tenant" before  the  name  of  a  country,  of  "vicar"  before 
a  divine  name.1  We  possess  inscriptions  in  which  the 
patesis  of  Nipur  and  of  Ishkun-Sin  acknowledge  their 
dependency  on  the  kings  of  Ur.  Nebuchadnezzar  II 
calls  himself  the  patesi  of  the  god  Merodach,  Sargon 
the  patesi  of  the  god  Assur.  The  title  of  the  earliest 
sovereigns  of  Assyria,  "  patesi  of  the  god  Assur," 
defines  their  power  as  being  that  either  of  a  king- 
dom predominantly  religious,  or  of  a  viceroyalty 
under  a  suzerain,  who  was  without  doubt  Babylonian. 
It  always  implies  the  idea  of  lieutenant  or  dependant. 
Why  should  we  admit  an  exception  in  the  case  of 
Shirpurla  ?  It  is  true  that  Gudea  comes  before  us  as 
a  powerful  prince.  In  one  of  his  inscriptions  (statue 
B)  he  boasts  of  having  overthrown  the  city  of  Anshan 
in  the  land  of  Elam.  But  for  aught  we  know  he 
may  have  made  this  expedition  in  the  company  of 
his  suzerain.  Dependence,  moreover,  admits  of  de- 
grees, and  it  can  even  be  purely  nominal.  France 
has  known  powerful  vassals  who  have  resisted 

III.  The  campaign  of  Gudea  in  Elam,  in  the  course 
of  which  the  city  of  Anshan  was  captured,  is  the  only 
fact  of  military  history  of  which  we  know.  We  have 
a  little  better  information,  thanks  to  two  inscriptions 

1  [I  should  rather  render  it  "  High-Priest."     See  my  Lectures  on  the 
Religion  of  the  Ancient  Babylonians,  pp.  59-60. --Ed.~\ 


of  the  same  patesi  (those  of  statue  B  and  cylinder  A), 
concerning  the  commercial  relations  of  his  country. 
Unfortunately  it  is  always  very  difficult  to  identify  the 
geographical  names  recorded  in  the  texts. 

From  a  passage  cited  above  it  appears  that  Shir- 
purla  enjoyed  commercial  intercourse  with  the  coun- 
tries of  Nituk,  Gubi  or  Gubin,  Magan,  and  Melughgha. 
These  four  countries  furnished  Chaldaea  with  wood  for 
building.     But  Melughgha  also  furnished  gold,  and 
Magan  a  hard  stone,  diorite,  which  was  employed  by 
the  sculptors.    Chaldaea  was  also  in  connection  with  the 
country  of  Martu,  that  is  to  say,  with  Phoenicia  and 
Syria.     From  a  mountain  which  seems  to  have  been 
Amanus,  it  derived  cedars  and  other  trees  ;  from  two 
other  mountains  of  Martu — Susalla  and  Tidanum  l — 
two  species  of  stones.     It  is  stones  again  that  were 
imported  from  a  mountain  of  Barsip,  which  I  should 
look  for  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Syrian  city  of 
Til-Barsip.     For  I  believe  that  it  is  the  same  country 
as  that  which  appears  in  W.  A.  L,  ii.  53,  a  3,  under 
the  varying  forms  of  Barsip-ki  and  Bursip-ki.     We 
know  that  the  name  of  Til-Barsip  was  also  written 
Til-Bursip.      The  inscription  of  statue  B,  moreover, 
tells  us  that  the  stones  coming  from  Barsip  were  con- 
veyed in  vessels  which,  according  to  my  view,  would 
have  had  only  to  descend  the  Euphrates.    I  am  greatly 
tempted  to  ascend  still  farther  to  the  north,  towards 
the  sources  of  this  river,  in  order  to  find  two  other  coun- 

1  The  reading  Susalla  is  uncertain.  Dr.  Hommel  has  compared  Tid- 
anum with  Tidnu,  the  Sumerian  equivalent  of  Akharru  (the  Semitic  term 
for  Syria). 


tries — the  city  of  Ursu-ki,  in  the  mountains  of  Ibla  (or 
rather,  Tilla  *),  which  furnished  wood,  and  Shamalum, 
or  Shamanum,  in  the  mountains  of  Menua,  which  fur- 
nished stones.  But  I  can  suggest  nothing  in  regard 
to  three  other  geographical  names  which  I  shall  con- 
fine myself  to  mentioning  :  the  mountain  of  Ghaghum, 
from  whence  Gudea  procured  gold;  the  city  of  Abullat 
or  Abulla-Abishu  ("  the  great  gate  of  his  fathers  "), 
situated  in  the  mountains  of  Ki-mash,2  whence  he 
procured  copper ;  and  the  country  or  city  of  Madga, 
in  the  mountains  of  the  river  Gurruda  (?),3  from  whence 
he  procured  a  product  whose  precise  nature  I  am 
unable  to  determine. 

Certain  cities  of  Babylonia  are  mentioned  in  our 
texts.  They  are  the  three  ancient  cities  of  Eridu 
(Nuu-ki),  Larrak  (Barbar-kt),  and  the  unknown  city 
of  Kinunir-ki.  They  always  appear  to  figure  as 
sacred  cities,  and  the  last  of  the  three  only  after  the 
name  of  a  goddess,  Duzi-abzu,  "the  mistress  of 

The  names  of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  frequently 
occur  on  the  two  cylinders  of  Gudea.  I  believe  I 
have  also  found  in  them  the  names  of  Shumer  and 
Accad — "  Kiengi  "  and  "  Ki-burbur."  But  it  is  not 

1  Dr.  Hommel  has  proposed  to  read  Dalla. 

2  [Ki-mash  seems  to  be  "the  country  of  Mas,"  or  Arabia  Petraea  ; 
comp.  the  Mash  of  Genesis  x.  23.     The  Babylonians  derived  a  name  for 
"copper,"  kemassu,  from  its  Sumerian  appellation. — /;'</.] 

3  Can  the  river  Gurruda  have  been  the  Dead  Sea,  and  can  the  product 
derived  from  the  neighbouring  district  have  been  bitumen,  as  Dr.  Hommel 
has  conjectured  ?     It  is  not  probable  that  all  the  bitumen  required  for  the 
buildings  of  Babylonia  was  exclusively  provided  by  the  little  river  of  Hit. 
(See  Hdt.  i.  179.) 


yet  possible  for  me  to  translate  the  passages  where 
they  are  found. 

The  inscription  of  statue  B  mentions  two  seas. 
"  After  he  had  caused  the  temple  of  Nin-girsu  to  be 
built,  Nin-girsu,  the  lord  beloved  by  him,  has  forcibly 
opened  for  him  the  roads  from  the  sea  of  the  high- 
lands to  the  lower  sea."  The  "sea  of  the  highlands  " 
is  evidently  the  Persian  Gulf,  and  it  is  impossible  to 
doubt  that  by  the  "  lower  sea  "  is  intended  the  Medi- 

IV.  For  a  knowledge  of  the  pantheon  of  Shirpurla- 
ki  we  possess  a  document  of  a  very  great  value. 
This  is  the  list  of  divinities  at  the  commencement  of 
the  imprecatory  formula  in  the  inscription  on  statue  B 
of  Gudea.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the  divi- 
nities, which  it  is  important  to  give  in  the  order, 
evidently  sacred,  in  which  they  are  enumerated  in 
the  inscription : — 

Anna,  the  Sky-god,  the  Anu  of  the  Semites ; 
Ellilla  or  Bel,  "  the  lord  of  the  mountain  of  the  world," l 
where  the  seat  of  the  gods  was  placed,  as  well  as  the 
habitation  of  the  dead,  also  called  "  the  father  of  the 
gods  ; "  Nin-gharsag  or  Belit,  "  the  mistress  of  the 
mountain,"  the  wife  of  Ellilla,  and  mother  of  the  gods  ; 
En-ki  or  Ea,  "  the  lord  of  the  earth"  and  the  waters ; 

En-zu,  or  Sin,  the  Moon-god,  the  eldest  son  of 
Ellilla  ;  Nin-girsu  or  Ninib,  the  Chaldean  Hercules, 
the  son  and  warrior  of  Ellilla  ;  Nina,  the  daughter  of 
Ea,  who  has  the  same  titles  as  Nin-dara,  and  may 

1  In  an  abbreviated  form,  "  the  lord  of  the  world." 


therefore  be  regarded  as  the  consort  of  this  god  ; 
Nin-dara,  who  is  the  god  Ninib  l  under  another  name  ; 
Gatumdug,  the  daughter  of  Anna,  who  is  the  goddess 
Bau  under  another  name ;  Bau,  daughter  of  Anna 
and  wife  of  Nin-girsu  ;  Ninni  or  Nana,  the  Ishtar  of 
the  Semites,  another  daughter  of  Anna  ;  Shamash, 
the  Sun-god,  the  son  of  En-ki  or  Ea ;  Pasagga,  the 
Ishum  of  the  Semites,  who  is  undoubtedly  only  an- 
other form  of  Gibil,  the  Fire-god,  the  son  of  En-ki  or 
Ea ; 

Gal-alim,  the  son  of  Nin-girsu ;  Dun-shagana, 
another  son  of  Nin-girsu  ;  Nin-mar-ki,  the  eldest 
daughter  of  Nina  ; 

Duzi-abzu,  "lady  of  Kinunir-ki;"  Nin-gish"-zida, 
the  god  of  Gudea. 

It  will  be  observed  that  this  list  arranges  the 
divinities  in  three  generations.  In  the  first  come  the 
four  great  gods,  including  a  goddess,  distinguished 
also  by  the  later  Assyro-Babylonian  religious  systems, 
and  from  whom  all  the  other  gods  proceed.  Next 
are  placed  the  sons  and  daughters  of  these  deities. 
Lastly  come  the  grandchildren.  I  have  been  obliged 
to  put  Duzi-abzu  and  Nin-gish-zida  by  themselves, 
since  no  text  has  as  yet  given  us  any  information  con- 
cerning them.2  But  we  may  believe  that  one  of  them 
—Nin-gish-zida — must  be  mentioned  at  the  end  of  the 

1  [Or  Uras.—  Ed.} 

2  If  our  Duzi-abzu  is  a  goddess — and  her  title  of  "lady  of  Kinunir-ki  " 
does  not  allow  us  to  doubt  it — it  is  clear  that  we  cannot   identify  her  with 
the  god  Duzi-abzu  who  is  named  in  W.  A.  L,  ii.  56,  33-38,  as  one  of  the 
six  sons  of  Ea.      It  is  necessary  to  understand  six  sons  in  this  passage,  and 
not  six  children,  since  the  following  line  names  "  a  daughter"  of  Ea. 


list,  whatever  may  have  been  his  rank  in  the  divine 
family,  since,  as  we  shall  see,  he  was  the  special  deity 
of  Gudea  and  his  intercessor  with  the  other  gods. 

The  preceding  list  does  not  give  all  the  gods 
mentioned  in  the  texts  of  Telloh  ;  some  even  are 
absent  who  had  their  temples  in  Shirpurla.  Without 
pretending  to  be  complete,  I  may  further  enumerate 
the  god  Nin-agal,  who  is  only  another  form  of  En-ki ; 
the  god  Shidlamta-ena,  another  name  of  Nin-girsu, 
and  the  Nergal  of  the  Semites  ;  the  god  Nin-sar,  yet 
another  name  of  Nergal ;  the  goddess  Nin-tu,  another 
designation  of  Nin-gharsag ;  the  god  Uru-ki  or  Sin  ; 
the  god  Nirba;  perhaps  the  god  Nin-shagh,  Pap-sukal; 
a  god  called  the  "king"  of  Gishgalla-ki ;  a  goddess 
Ku-anna;  a  god  Dun-sir  (?)-anna ;  seven  sons  of 
Bau,  who  are  termed  Zazaru  (or  Zazauru),  Im-ghud- 
ena,  Ur-un-ta-ena  (or  Gim-nun-ta-ena),  Ghi-gir-nunna, 
Ghi-shaga,  Gurmu,  and  Zarmu. 

In  a  learned  article  in  the  Zeitschrift  filr  Assyri- 
ologie  (ii.  pp.  179  seq^  Prof.  Tiele  has  shown  that  at 
Babylon,  by  the  side  of  the  local  god  Bel-Merodach 
and  even  in  his  temple  of  E-shagil,  his  wife  and  son 
Zarpanit  and  Nebo  were  also  adored  ;  that  at  Bor- 
sippa,  by  the  side  of  the  supreme  god  Nebo  and  in 
his  temple  of  E-Zida,  his  consort  Nana  was  wor- 
shipped. If  we  remember  that  other  temples  existed 
at  Babylon  dedicated  to  various  other  deities,  we  shall 
readily  admit  that  the  cult  rendered  to  these  gods 
was  offered  by  reason  of  their  being  the  mother,  the 
brothers,  or  the  sisters  of  the  principal  divinity.  We 


may  remark,  moreover,  that  the  supreme  god  of  the 
national  or  local  pantheon  was  hardly  ever  one  of  the 
primordial  deities.  The  latter,  indeed,  appear  to  me 
to  have  been  born  after  their  sons,  in  consequence  of 
the  need  experienced  by  the  mind  of  man  to  establish 
for  his  god  a  family  analogous  to  his  own,  with 
parents,  wife,  and  children.  The  two  exceptions 
which  may  be  instanced  from  Nipur  and  Eridu  are 
not  certain.  Dr.  Hommel  has  remarked  that  one  text 
at  all  events  names  Ninib  and  not  Bel  as  the  chief 
divinity  of  Nipur.  As  for  Eridu,  I  do  not  feel  sure 
that  the  principal  deity  there  was  really  Ea.  This 
god  had  certainly  a  temple  in  Eridu,  just  as  he  had 
at  Shirpurla-ki,  but  in  both  cities  it  was  under  the  title 
of  the  divine  father  that  he  was  adored.  The  very 
interesting  inscription  on  a  brick  of  a  patesi  of  Eridu, 
named  Idadu,  which  is  unfortunately  still  unpublished, 
would  lead  us  to  suppose  that  the  chief  god  of  the 
place  was  Nin-Eridu,  possibly  a  name  of  Merodach.1 

The  supreme  god  of  Shirpurla  was  Nin-girsu, 
whose  consort  was  the  goddess  Bau.  Both  were 
worshipped  under  different  titles.  Besides  the  temples 
in  which  he  was  invoked  as  Nin-girsu,  he  had  others 
in  Girsu-ki,  where  he  was  known  as  Nin-dara  and 
Shidlamta-ena.  Similarly  the  goddess  was  not  only 
adored  as  Bau,  but  she  was  also  worshipped  in  Uru- 
azagga  as  Gatumdug  and  in  Nina-ki  as  Nina.  Three 
at  least  of  the  parent  gods  had  sanctuaries  in  Shir- 

1  See    George    Smith    in   the    Transactions  of  the  Society  of  Biblical 
Archceology,  i.  p.  32. 


purla, —  Ellilla  (called  specially  "the  father  of  Nin- 
girsu"),  En-ki,  and  "the  mother  of  the  gods,"  Nin- 
gharsag.  Temples  were  even  dedicated  to  En-ki 
under  his  two  titles  of  En-ki  and  Nin-agal.  We  may 
question  whether  it  was  in  virtue  of  her  being  his  wife 
or  his  sister  that  Ninni  possessed  a  temple  in  Girsu- 
ki  and  another  in  Gishgalla-ki ;  and  also  whether  Nin- 
gish-zida,  in  his  special  temple  at  Girsu-ki,  was  wor- 
shipped as  being  a  brother  of  the  god  or  as  being  the 
god  himself  under  a  fourth  manifestation.  It  is  cer- 
tain,on  the  other  hand,  that  Gal-alim  and  Dun-shagana 
had  each  a  temple  because  they  were  the  sons  of 
Nin-girsu,  and  that  Nin-mar-ki  had  one  because  she 
was  the  daughter  of  Nina.  We  do  not  know  at  pre- 
sent what  were  the  grounds  of  relationship  which 
caused  temples  to  be  erected  in  Girsu-ki  to  the  god- 
desses Ku-anna1  and  Duzi-abzu.  It  is  possible  that 
some  of  these  numerous  temples  were  only  chapels 
situated  in  E-ninnu,  the  favourite  sanctuary  of  Nin- 
girsu  ;  those,  for  example,  which  belonged  to  the  sons 
of  the  god. 

While  regarding  Nin-girsu  as  the  supreme  object 
of  his  cult,  as  "his  king,"  to  use  the  stereotyped  ex- 
pression, each  prince  of  Shirpurla-ki  selected  also  a 
special  deity  from  among  the  divine  family,  who  acted 
as  his  intercessor  with  Nin-girsu.2  We  are  acquainted 
with  the  deities  of  five  of  these  princes.  That  of  Uru- 

1  Consort  of  the  god  Martu,  according  to  the  Collection  de  Clercq,  cyl. 
114.     Cf.  W.  A.  I.,  iii.  67,  b  35. 

2  See  more  especially  the  last  lines  of  inscription  No.  i  of  King  Uru- 
Kagina.     M.  Heuzey  has  drawn  my  attention  to  the  lines,  which  have  been 
translated  for  the  first  time  by  Dr.  Oppert. 


Kagina  was  perhaps  Nin-shagh  or  Pap-sukal — though 
the  reading  is  doubtful  ;  that  of  Enteha  and  En- 
anna- tumma  was  Dun-sir(?)-anna  ;  that  of  Ur-Bau 
was  Nin-agal  ;  that  of  Gudea,  Nin-gish-zida. 

We  have  not  yet  succeeded  in  ascertaining  the 
exact  sense  of  the  various  appellations  of  Nin-girsu 
and  his  wife  Bau  ;  it  is  consequently  impossible  to 
define  with  precision  the  character  and  personality 
of  these  divinities.  We  may  admit,  however,  that 
Nin-girsu  was  a  solar  deity,  personifying  more  par- 
ticularly the  sun  when  veiled  in  clouds  ;  hence  the 
combative  and  military  aspect  of  the  god.  Like 
Apollo,  with  whom  he  would  be  more  fitly  compared 
than  with  Hercules,  he  was  at  once  an  avenger  and 
a  saviour,  a  huntsman,  and  perhaps  a  shepherd. 
As  for  Bau,  who  was  termed  "  the  mother  "  par  ex- 
cellence, and  to  whom  were  given  the  titles  of  "  good 
lady,"  "  Mistress  of  Abundance,"  she  was  a  terrestrial 
divinity,  resembling  in  many  points  the  Demeter  of 
the  Greeks.  It  is  even  possible  that  like  Demeter 
she  presided  also  over  Hades,  and  not  only  over  the 
living  and  fertile  earth.  Two  of  our  texts  mention 
a  festival  of  Bau,  which  occurred,  if  I  understand  the 
passage  aright,  at  the  commencement  of  the  year  ; 
and  it  appears  to  result  from  another  inscription  that 
the  chief  festival  of  Nin-girsu  took  place  at  the  same 
time.  Indeed  it  is  probable  that  it  was  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  year,  at  the  vernal  equinox,  that  the 
cities  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria  alike  celebrated  the 
festivals  of  their  gods. 


The  following  translations  comprise  almost  all 
the  texts  hitherto  brought  from  Telloh,  with  the 
exception  of  the  inscription  on  the  so-called  Stele  of 
the  Vultures  and  those  on  the  two  large  cylinders  of 

Restorations  of  the  text  are  indicated  by  brackets 
— [  ].  Words  placed  in  parentheses — ( ) — have  been 
added  in  order  to  render  the  sense  more  intelligible. 

Certain  of  the  inscriptions  have  been  published 
in  Decouvertes  en  Chaldee,  par  E.  de  Sarzec,  edited  by 
L.  Heuzey,  of  which  the  first  two  parts  have  appeared 
in  1884  and  1887. 


NO.    I.1 — COLUMN  I 

1.  Nina-ur 

2.  king 

3.  of  SHIRPURLA, 

4.  son  of  Nini-ghal-gin, 

5.  the  temple  of  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

6.  has  erected. 

7.  The  Ib-gal  (?) 

8.  he  has  erected. 

9.  The  temple  of  the  goddess  NINA 
10.  he  has  erected. 


1.  The  Sig-nir  (?) 

2.  he  has  erected. 

3.  His  tower  in  stages  (?) 

4.  he  has  erected. 

5.  The  temple  of  ^1  ... 

6.  he  has  erected.  A 

7.  The  temple  of  E-GHUD 

8.  he  has  erected. 

9.  His  observatory  (?) 
10.  he  has  erected. 

1  Ddcouvertes  en  Chaldde,  pi.  2,  No.  i.  Translated  by  Dr.  Oppert  in 
a  Communication  to  the  Academie  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles-lettres,  2d 
March  1883. 



?  [The  palace] 

1.  of  the  Ti-ash-ra  (?) 

2.  he  has  erected. 

3.  The  temple  of  the  goddess  GATUMDUG 

4.  he  has  erected. 

5.  The  great  apzu l 

6.  he  has  constructed. 

7.  After  that  the  temple  of  NIN-GIRSU 

8.  he  has  caused  to  be  erected 

9.  seventy  great  measures  (?)  of  corn 
i  o.  in  his  house  of  fruits 


?  [he  has  stored  up.] 

1.  From  MAGAN2 

2.  the  mountain3 

3.  all  sorts  of  wood  he  has  imported. 

4.  The  castle  4  of  SHIRPURLA 

5.  he  has  built. 

6.  The  small  apzu 

7.  he  has  constructed ; 


?  [in  the  temple] 

1.  of  the  goddess  NINA,  lady  of  destinies  (?), 

2.  he  has  placed  it. 

3.  Two  statues  (?) 

4.  he  has  set  up  (?); 

5.  these  two  statues  (?)  .   .  . 


1  [The  apzu,  or  "deep,"  was  the  basin  for  purification  attached  to  a 
Babylonian  temple,  corresponding  to  the  "sea"  of  Solomon. — Ed.] 

2  The  Sinaitic  Peninsula,  perhaps  including  Midian. 

3  Or  "  the  country."  4  Or  "wall." 

VOL.  I  F 


NO.  2. 1— COLUMN  I 

1.  Nina-ur 

2.  the  king 

3.  of  SHIRPURLA, 

4.  son  of  Nini-ghal-gin, 

5.  the  habitation  (?)  of  GIRSU 


1.  has  constructed. 

2.  The  bricks  of  the  foundation  (?) 

The  inscription  breaks  off  here. 

No.  3.2 — COLUMN  i 

1.  Nina-ur 

2.  the  king 

3.  of  SHIRPURLA, 


i .  the  son  of  Nini-ghal-g[in]. 

1  Dtcouvertes,  pi.  2,  No.  2.     Translated  by  Dr.  Hommel,  Geschichte 
Babyloniens  und  Assyriens,  p.  285. 

2  L.  Heuzey,  "Les  Rois  de  Tello,"  in  the  Revue  Archtologique,  Nov. 






1.  [pate]si 

2.  [of  SHIRPUR]LA 


1.  [of  the  god]  NIN-GIRSU 

2.  [the  .  .   .  ]  dun 

3.  has  constructed. 

4.  The  palace  of  Ti-ra-ash-di  (?) 

5.  he  has  built, 

6.  and  he  has  .  .  . 

7.  E-an-[na]-du  2 

8.  covered  with  renown 


1.  by  the  god  NIN-GIRSU, 

2.  for  the  countries 

3.  by  the  power  of  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

The  last  lines  are  destroyed. 

1  Ddcouvertes,    pi.    2,    No.   3.      The  writing  used  in   this  inscription 
resembles  that  of  the  inscriptions  of  Ur-nina  and  the  Stele  of  the  Vultures 
more  than  any  other.     However,  the  little  that  remains  of  the  first  column 
seems  to  indicate  that  it  belongs  to  a  patesi  and  not  to  a  king,  perhaps  to 
an  E-anna-du. 

2  This  proper  name  is  mutilated,  but  I  believe  my  reading  very  prob- 
able.    Cf.  the  Stele  of  the  Vultures,  Obv.  i.  i. 



NO.    I.1— COLUMN  I 

1.  For  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

2.  the  warrior  of  the  god  ELLILLA, 

3.  Uru-Kagina, 

4.  the  king 

5.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

6.  his  temple 

7.  has  constructed. 

8.  His  palace  of  Ti-ra-ash 

9.  he  has  constructed. 


1.  The  an-ta-shur-ra 

2.  he  has  constructed. 

3.  The  E-gish-me-ra 

4.  in  order  to  [be]  the  E-ne-bi  of  the  countries 

5.  he  has  constructed. 

6.  The  house  of  fruits  which  produces  abundance  (?) 

in  the  country 

7.  he  has  constructed. 

8.  For  the  god  DUN-SHAGANA 

9.  his  habitation  of  AKKIL 


1.  he  has  constructed. 

2.  For  the  god  GAL-ALIMMA 

3.  the  temple  of  E-ME-GAL-GHUSH-AN-KI 

4.  he  has  constructed. 

1  From  a  squeeze  in  the  Louvre.     Translated  by  Dr.   Oppert  in  a 
Communication  to  the  Acaddmie  des  Inscriptions,  agth  February  1884. 



The  temple  of  the  goddess  BAU1 
he  has  constructed. 
For  the  god  ELLILLA 
the  temple  of  E-ADDA,2 
his  im-sag-ga, 


1.  he  has  constructed. 

2.  The  Bur(?)-sag, 

3.  his  temple  which  rises  to  the  entrance  of  heaven  (?), 

4.  he  has  constructed. 

5.  Of  Uru-Kagina, 

6.  the  king 

7.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

8.  who  the  temple  of  E-NINNU 

9.  has  constructed, 
10.  his  god 







is  the  god  NIN-SHAGH.S 

For  the  life  of  the  king 

during  the  long  days  to  come 

before  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

may  he  (NIN-SHAGH)  bow  down  his  face  ! 

No.  2 — ON  A  BUTTRESS 

the  god  NIN-GIRSU], 
the]  warrior 
~of  the  god  EL]LILLA, 
the]  king 

1  [Bau  is  probably  the  Baau  of  Phoenician  mythology,  whose  name  was 
interpreted  "the  night,"  and  who  was  supposed  along  with  her  husband 
Kolpia,  "  the  wind,"  to  have  produced  the  first  generation  of  men.      The 
word  has  been  compared  with  the  Hebrew  bohu,  translated  "  void  "  in  Gen. 
i.  z.— Ed.] 

2  [•'  The  temple  of  the  father."—  Ed.  ] 

3  Or  Nin-dun. 


7.  [the  Antd\-Shurra, 

8.  [the  house]  of  abundance  of  his  country, 

9.  [has]  constructed. 

i  o.  His  [palace]  of  Ti-[ra-ash] 

ii.  [he]  has  constructed. 

Lines  1 2  and  1 3  are  destroyed. 

14.  [For  the  god]  GAL-ALIMMA 

Lines  15-21  are  destroyed. 

22.  [he  has]  constructed. 

23.  [For  the  god]  NIN-SAR, 

24.  the  bearer  [of  the  sword  ?] 

25.  [of  the  god]  NIN-GIRSU, 

26.  his  temple 

27.  he  has  constructed. 

28.  [For  the  god  .  .  .]  GIR  (?) 

29.  the  well-beloved 

30.  [of  the  god]  NIN-GIRSU 

31.  his  temple 

32.  he  has  constructed. 

33.  The  £ur(t)-sag, 

34.  his  temple  which  rises  to  the  entrance  of  heaven  (?), 

35.  he  has  constructed. 

36.  For  the  god  ELLILLA 

37.  the  temple  of  E-ADDA,1 

38.  his  im-sag-ga, 

39.  he  has  constructed. 

40.  For  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

41.  the  sanctuary  (?) 

42.  of  E-melam-kurra2 

43.  he  has  constructed. 

44.  The  temple  wherein  dwells  (?)  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

45.  he  has  constructed. 

46.  Of  Uru-Kagina, 

1  ["The  temple  of  the  father." — Ed.'] 
2  ["The  temple  of  the  brilliance  of  the  (eastern)  mountain."—  Ed.} 


47.  who  the  temple 

48.  of  the  god  Nin-ciRSU  .... 

The  inscription  breaks  off  here,  having  never  been  finished. 

NO.  3. — ON   A   CYLINDER1 

The  first  lines  are  lost. 

1.  Uru-Kagina, 

2.  the  king 

3.  of  GIRSU-KI, 

4.  the  Anta-shurra, 

5.  the  house  of  abundance  of  his  country, 

6.  his  palace  of  TI-RA-ASH, 

7.  has  constructed. 

8.  The  temple  of  the  goddess  BAU 

9.  [he  has]  constructed. 



The  first  lines  are  lost. 

1.  he  has  [constructed]. 

2.  For  the  god  [DUN-SHA]GA[NA] 

3.  his  habitation  of  [AKKIL] 

4.  he  has  [constructed]. 

5.  For  the  god  .... 

6.  his  tablet-like  amulets  (?)2 

7.  (and)  his  temple  he  has  made. 

8.  In  the  middle  (of  this  temple) 

9.  for  the  god  ZA-ZA-URU, 

10.  for  the  god  IM-GHUD-£N, 

11.  for  the  god  GIM-NUN-TA-£N-A 

1  Ddcouvertes,  pi.  32. 

2  Possibly  the  small  tablets  of  white  or  black  stone  buried  under  the 
foundations  of  the  temples.     These  tablets  were  sometimes  of  metal ;  those, 
for  example,  discovered  at  Khorsabad.     It  seems  that  some  consisted  also 
of  ivory  and  precious  wood  ;  see  W.  A.  I.,  i.  49,  col.  4,  12. 


12.  temples  he  has  built  for  them. 

13.  For  the  god  NIN-SAR 



The  first  lines  are  lost. 

1.  [For  the  god  ELLIL]LA 

2.  [the  temple  of  E-JADDA,  his  [im-]sagga, 

3.  he  has  constructed. 

4.  For  the  goddess  NINA, 

5.  her  favourite  river, 

6.  the  canal  NINA-KI-TUM-A 

7.  he  has  excavated  (?). 

8.  At  the  mouth  (of  the  canal),  an  edifice. 

Fragments  of  four  other  columns  remain. 



1.  To  the  goddess  GATUMDUG, 

2.  the  mother  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

3.  Entena, 

4.  the  pat'esi 

5.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

6.  who  has  built  the  temple  of  the  goddess  GATUMDUG. 

7.  His  god 

8.  is  the  god  DUN-SIR(?)-ANNA. 



1.  For  the  god  NiN-Gmsu, 

2.  the  warrior  of  the  god  ELLILLA, 

3.  En-anna-tumma, 

4.  the  patesi 

5.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

6.  the  chosen  of  the  heart 

7.  of  the  goddess  NINA, 

8.  the  great  patesi 

9.  of  the  god  NIN-GIRSU, 

10.  the  son  of  Entena 

11.  the  patesi 

12.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI. 

1 3.  For  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

14.  his  house  of  fruits 

15.  he  has  restored. 

1 6.  Of  En-anna-tumma, 

17.  who  the  house  of  fruits 

1 8.  of  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

19.  has  restored, 

20.  his  god 

21.  is  the  god  DUN-SIR(?)-ANNA. 

1  Ddcouvertes,  pi.  6,  No.  4. 



NO.   I.  — ON   A   STATUE1 

1.  To  the  god  NIN-GIRSU 

2.  the  powerful  warrior 

3.  of  the  god  ELLILLA, 

4.  Ur-Bau 

5.  the  patesi 

6.  of  SHIRPURLA-KI, 

7.  the  offspring  begotten 

8.  by  the  god  NIN-AGAL, 

9.  chosen  by  the  immutable  will  of  the  goddess  NINA, 

10.  endowed  with  power  by  the  god  NIN-GIRSU, 

11.  named  with  a  favourable  name  by  the  goddess  BAU, 

12.  endowed  with  intelligence  by  the  god  EN-Ki,2 


1.  covered  with  renown  by  the  goddess  NINNI, 

2.  the  favourite  servant  of  the  god  who  is  king  of  GISH- 


3.  the  favourite  of  the  goddess  DUZI-ABZU. 

4.  I  am  UR-BAU  ; 

5.  the  god  NIN-GIRSU  is  my  king. 

6.  The  site  of  ...  .3  he  has  excavated. 

7.  The  earth  thence  extracted,  like  precious  stones,  he  has 

measured  (?) ; 

8.  like  a  precious  metal  he  has  weighed  (?)  it. 

1  Dlcouvertes,  pll.  7  and  8.     Translated  by  Dr.  Oppert  in  a  Communi- 
cation to  the  Acaddmie  des  Inscriptions,  3151  March  1882. 

2  [Also  called  Ea,  the  god  of  the  deep. — Ed.} 

3  Perhaps  some  edifice  previously  dedicated  to  the  goddess  Bau.     The 
characters  are  destroyed. 


.    COLUMN    III 

1.  According  to  the  plan  adopted  he  has  marked  out  a 

large  space ; 

2.  into  the  middle  (of  it)  he  has  carried  this  earth, 

3.  and  he  has  made  its  mundus.1 

4.  Above,  a  substructure  6  cubits  high,  he  has  built. 

5.  Above  this  substructure 

6.  the  temple  E-NiNNU,  which  illumines  the  darkness  (?), 

30  cubits  in  height, 

7.  he  has  built. 

8.  For  the  goddess  NiN-GHARSAG,2  the   mother  of  the 



1.  her  temple  of  GIRSU-KI 

2.  he  has  constructed. 

3.  For  the  goddess  BAU, 

4.  the  good  lady, 

5.  the  daughter  of  ANNA, 

6.  her  temple  of  URU-AZAGGA 

7.  he  has  constructed. 

8.  For  the  goddess   NINNI,   the    lady  august,   the  sove- 

reign (?), 

9.  her  temple  of  GISHGALLA-K.I 

10.  he  has  constructed. 

1 1.  For  the  god  EN-KI,  the  king  of  ERIDU, 

12.  his  temple  of  GIRSU-KI 


1.  he  has  constructed. 

2.  For  the  god  NIN-DARA,S  the  lord  of  destinies  (?), 

3.  his  temple  he  has  constructed. 

4.  For  the  god  NIN-AGAL, 

1  This  translation  of  these  six  lines  is  given  under  reserve.     Should  we 
compare  the  ceremonies  at  the  foundation  of  cities  in  classical  antiquity? 

2  ["The  lady  of  the  mountain." — Ed.] 
8  [OrUras.—  Ed.~\ 


5.  his  god, 

6.  his  temple 

7.  he  has  constructed. 

8.  For  the  goddess  NiN-MAR-Ki1 

9.  the  good  lady, 

10.  the  eldest  daughter  of  the  goddess  NINA, 

11.  the  Esh-gu-tur  (?),  the  temple  of  her  constant  choice, 

12.  he  has  constructed. 


1.  For  the  god  .... 

2.  the  shepherd  .  .  .  [of]  GIR-[SU-KI], 

3.  his  temple  .  .  . 

4.  he  has  constructed. 

5.  For  the  goddess  Ku-ANNA,2 

6.  the  lady  of  the  cloudy  sky  (?), 

7.  her  temple  of  GIRSU-KI 

8.  he  has  constructed. 

9.  For  the  goddess  DUZI-ABZU, 

10.  the  lady  of  KINUNIR-KI, 

1 1.  her  temple  of  GIRSU-KI 

12.  he  has  constructed. 

The  remaining  inscriptions  of  Telloh  will  be  translated 
in  the  next  volume. 

1  [' '  The  lady  of  the  city  of  Mar. "— Ed.  ] 

2  The  consort  of  the  god  Martu  [or  Rimmon],  according  to  a  cylinder 
belonging  to  M.  de  Clercq  (No.  114) ;  cf.  W.  A.  I.,  iii.  67,  b.  35. 



THIS  short  inscription  of  twenty-seven  lines  is  one 
of  peculiar  interest.  It  is  a  record,  written  in  the 
Akkadian  language,  of  an  endowment,  made  by  an 
early  Mesopotamian  king  with  a  Semitic  Babylonian 
name,  to  the  great  temple  at  Erech  called  E-ana  ; l 
and  it  is  not  an  original,  but  a  copy  in  clay,  written  by 
a  man  named  Nabu-baladhsu-iqbi,  of  a  stone  tablet 
kept,  in  ancient  times,  in  the  great  temple  known  as 
li-zida,  now  the  ruin  called  the  Birs-i-Nimroud — the 
supposed  tower  of  Babel.  Great  care  has  been  taken 
by  the  copyist  in  inscribing  the  tablet;  and  the  forms 
of  the  characters,  as  he  has  given  them,  probably 
reproduce  fairly  well  the  archaic  style  of  the  original. 
The  text  itself  covers  the  greater  part  of  the  two 
sides  of  the  clay  tablet,  which  is,  like  most  of  the 
documents  of  this  kind  found  in  Babylonia  and 
Assyria,  flat — or  nearly  so — on  the  obverse,  and 
curved  on  the  reverse.  The  last  three  lines,  which 

1  Written  £-an-na  in  the  inscriptions.  The  end-syllable  -na  is,  how- 
ever, generally  regarded  as  a  kind  of  phonetic  complement,  and  the  n  is 
therefore  not  really  double.  The  name  means  "  House  of  heaven." 


are  separate  from  the  others,  are  written  smaller,  and 
are  in  the  later  Babylonian  style  of  writing.  Unlike 
the  rest,  also,  they  are  written  in  the  Semitic-Baby- 
lonian language.  The  size  of  the  tablet  is  4^-  inches 
by  2-|  inches,  the  thickness  in  the  thickest  part  being 
i^-  inch.  The  colour  is  a  very  light  yellow  ochre. 

As  the  word-order  in  Akkadian  differs  consider- 
ably from  English,  no  attempt  is  made  to  preserve 
the  divisions  of  the  lines  of  the  original  ;  by  this 
arrangement  translations  from  these  ancient  tongues 
are  much  more  easily  understood. 


Sin-gashid,1  king  of  ERECH,2  king  of  AMNANUM,  and 
patron 3  of  &-ANA,  to  LUGAL-BANDA  his  god  and  NIN-GUL 
his  goddess.  When  he  built  £-ANA  he  erected  &-KANKAL, 
the  house  which  is  the  seat  of  the  joy  of  his  heart.4  Dur- 
ing his  dominion  he  will  endow  it  with 5  30  gur  of  wheat, 
1 2  mana  of  wool,  i  o  mana  of  produce,  1 8  qa  of  oil  accord- 
ing to  6  the  tariff,  and  i  shekel  of  gold.  May  his  years  be 
years  of  plenty. 


Copy  of  the  tablet  of  ww-stone,  the  property 7  of  &-ZIDA, 
which  Nabu-baladhsu-iqbi,  son  of  Mitsiraa,8  has  written. 

It  may  not  be  without   interest   to  give  here   a 
transcription  of  the  original  text  into  Roman  char- 

1  This  name  is  probably  for  Sin-kashid,    ' '  the  Moon-god  has  made 

2  The  Akkadian  form  is  Unuga. 

3  Literally    "nourisher"    (ua,   equivalent  to  the  Semitic -Babylonian 

'  The  Akkadians  here  use  the  compound  sha-ghulla,  "  heartjoy." 

8  Literally,  "measure  out  to  it." 

0  Or,  perhaps,  "according  to  the  tariff  of  the  time." 

7  The  original   has   the  Akkadian  word  nigga  —  Semitic- Babylonian 

8  Mitsiraa,  "the  Egyptian." 


acters,   omitting   the    determinative   prefixes,   which 
were  probably  not  pronounced  : — 

Lugal-banda,  dingiranir,  Nin-gul  amanir,  Sin- 
gashid,  lugal  Unuga,  lugal  Amnanum,  ua  £-ana. 
Ud  E-ana  mu-dua,  £-kankal,  e  ki-tur  shaghulakane, 
munen-du.  Bala  nam-lugalakani  ba  she-gur-ta,  ghu- 
min  mana  sig-ta,  ghu  mana  um-ta  (ghu-ussa-qa *)  sal- 
gish-ta,  kilama  dana-ka,  guskin  gi  ge  ghipdazig. 
Mua-ni  mu  ghigala  ghia. 

Gabri  narua  sha  ushi,  nigga  E-zida,  Nabu-bal- 
adhsu-iqbt,  abil  Mitsiraa,  isdhur. 

The  text  begins  with  an  invocation  to  Lugal- 
banda  and  his  consort  Nin-gul,  who  seem  to  have 
been  Sin-gashid's  patron  god  and  goddess.  He  then 
speaks  of  £-ana,  one  of  the  great  temples  of  Erech 
(which  was,  perhaps,  Sin-gashid's  capital),  and  E-kan- 
kal,  probably  one  of  the  shrines  in  E-ana.  Judging 
from  the  wording,  Sin-gashid  seems  to  claim  to  be 
the  founder  of  both  those  fanes,  though  it  is  probable 
that  he  only  rebuilt  them.  Sin-gashid  then  gives  a 
list  of  the  amounts  of  produce,  etc.,  with  which  he 
had  endowed  the  shrine,  and  ends  with  a  pious  wish 
for  his  country.  The  date  of  the  original  of  this  in- 
scription may  be  set  down  at  about  2600  B.C.  The 
copy  which  has  come  down  to  us,  however,  probably 
dates  from  the  time  of  the  antiquarian  revival  in 
Babylonia  during  the  reign  of  Nabonidus,  father  of 

1  This  is  represented  on  the  tablet  by  a  single  character  formed  with 
four  wedges  (three  horizontal  and  one  upright)  of  the  same  form  as  the 
character  as.  This  character  is  equivalent  to  3x6  (  =  18)  qa. 

VOL.  I  G 


It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  inscription  is  dedicated 
to  a  god  and  a  goddess  whose  names  I  provisionally 
transcribe  as  Lngal-banda  ("powerful  king,"  or  "king 
of  youthful  strength  ")  and  Nin-gul,  his  consort  (as 
we  learn  from  the  second  volume  of  the  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions  of  Western  Asia,  pi.  59,  11.  24  and  25  1). 
This  identification  of  Ningul  as  the  consort  of  Lugal- 
banda  is  important,  as  it  shows  that  Sin-gashid,  who 
calls  her  his  mother,  and  himself  her  son,2  did  not 
mean  to  imply  that  she  was  his  real  earthly  parent, 
but  that  he  simply  traced  his  descent  from  her,  thus 
asserting  his  divine  origin.  The  late  George  Smith's 
double-queried  "  Belat-sunat  "  (as  he  transcribed  the 
name  Nin-gul),  "  the  earliest  known  queen  in  the 
Euphrates  valley,"  must  therefore  be  erased  from  the 
list  of  historical  rulers  in  Erech. 

The  temple  E-ana  was  probably  the  principal 
fane  in  the  city  of  Erech,  and  £-kankal 3  was  prob- 
ably one  of  the  shrines  within  it.  It  is  not  improb- 
able that  the  £-kankal  mentioned  here  is  the  same 
as,  or  the  fellow-shrine  to,  the  6-ghili-ana  mentioned 
by  Assur-bani-pal  as  the  sanctuary,  apparently  in  or 
connected  with  6-ana,  to  which  he  restored  the 
image  of  the  goddess  Nana,  which  was  carried  off 
by  the  king  of  Elam,  Kudur-nankhundi,  about  2280 

1  From  a  comparison  of  the  other  names  in  the  text  there  published,  it 
would  seem  that  other  possible  readings  of  these  two  names  are  Uvutn- 
banda  or  On-banda  and  &n-gul  or  £-gul.     Fresh  excavations  in  the  East 
can  alone  determine  these  points. 

2  Cun.  Ins.  of  W.  Asia,  vol.   i.  pi.  3,  No.  viii.  (Brick  from  the  sum- 
mit of  the  Bovvarieh  ruin  at  Warka). 

3  ' '  The  house  of  the  sanctuary  "  (?). 


rears  before  Christ.      As  the  date  of  Sin-gashid  is 

loubtful,1    it    is    impossible    to    say   with    certainty 

whether  the  capture  of  the  image  of  Nana  by  the 

Elamites  took  place  before  or  after  his  reign,  but 

it  was  probably  after.2 

The  inscription  here  translated  and  explained  is 
a  duplicate  of  one  published  in  the  fourth  volume  of 
the  Ctmeiform  Ins.  of  W.  Asia,  pi.  35,  No.  3,  from 
two  cones  from  Warka.3  Of  this  text,  which  is 
rather  roughly  written,  and  which  gives  a  few  inter- 
esting variants  from  the  text  translated  above,  a 
tentative  translation  was  given  by  the  late  George 
Smith  in  his  "  Early  History  of  Babylonia,"  pub- 
lished in  the  Transactions  of  the  Society  of  Biblical 
Archeology ',  vol.  i.,  and  in  the  first  series  of  the 
Records  of  the  Past,  vol.  iii. 

1  He  may  be  regarded  as  having  reigned  about  2600  B.C. 

2  The  text  of  Assur-bani-pal's  description  is  as  follows  : — "For  1635 
years  had  the  goddess  Nana  been  angry,  had  gone,  and  had  dwelt  within 
Elam,  which  was  not  her  proper  place  ;  and  in  those  days  she  and  the 
gods  her  fathers  proclaimed  my  name  to  the  dominion  of  the  world.     She 
intrusted  to  me  the  return  of  her  divinity  thus  :    '  Assur-bani-pal  shall  bring 
me  out  of  the  midst  of  wicked  Elam,  and  shall  cause  me  to  enter  within 
E-ana.'     The  words  of  the  command  of  her  divinity,    which  she  had 
spoken   from   remote  days,   she  again  revealed  to   the  later  people.     I 
grasped  the  hand  of  her  great  divinity,  and  she  took  the  straight  road, 
with  joy  of  heart,  to  E-ana.      In  the  month  Kisleu,  on  the  first  day,  I 
caused  her  to  enter  Erech,  and  in  E-ghili-ana,  which  she  loves,  I  caused 
an  everlasting  shrine  to  be  founded  for  her." 

3  The  ancient  Erech,  in  which  the  temple  E-ana  was  situated. 


IN  connection  with  the  text  referring  to  E-ana  in 
Erech,  the  following,  a  kind  of  penitential  psalm 
written  in  the  Sumerian  dialect,  with  a  translation 
into  Semitic-Babylonian,  which  I  have  entitled  "  The 
Erechite's  lament  over  the  desolation  of  his  father- 
land," may  be  here  very  appropriately  appended. 
This  interesting  composition,  if  not  actually  written 
and  sung  after  the  carrying  away  of  the  statue  of  the 
goddess  Nana  by  the  Elamities,  might  well  have 
been  chanted  by  the  sorrowing  Erechites  on  that 

The  fragment  as  published  (Cun.  Ins.  of  W.  Asia, 
iv.  19,  No.  3)  begins  with  the  reverse  of  the  text,  and 
breaks  off  when  rather  less  than  half-way  through  it. 
Of  the  obverse,  which  is  as  yet  unpublished,  the  re- 
mains only  of  about  sixteen  lines  at  the  bottom  are 
left.  What  remains  of  the  obverse  refers  to  the 
devastation  wrought  by  an  enemy  in  the  city  of 
Erech,  and  the  subject  is  continued  on  the  reverse, 
which  ends  in  a  kind  of  litany.  The  following  is  a 
free  rendering  of  the  inscription  on  the  reverse. 


Pw  long,  my  Lady,  shall  the  strong  enemy  hold  thy  sanc- 
tuary ? 

There  is  want  in  ERECH,  thy  principal  city ; 
Blood  is  flowing  like  water  in  E-ulbar,  the  house  of  thy 

oracle ; 
He  has  kindled  and  poured  out  fire  like  hailstones  on  all 

thy  lands. 

My  Lady,  sorely  am  I  fettered  by  misfortune ; 
My  Lady,  thou  hast  surrounded  me,  and  brought  me  to 


The  mighty  enemy  has  smitten  me  down  like  a  single  reed. 
Not  wise  myself,  I  cannot  take  counsel ; 1 
I  mourn  day  and  night  like  the  fields.2 
I,  thy  servant,  pray  to  thee. 
Let  thy  heart  take  rest,  let  thy  disposition  be  softened. 

weeping,  let  thy  heart  take  rest. 

let  thy  heart  take  rest. 

save  (?)  thou. 

Translations  of  this  text  have  been  given  by  G. 
Smith,  Lenormant,  Halevy,  Hommel,  and  Zimmern, 
and  a  drawing  of  the  reverse  of  the  fragment,  accom- 
panied with  a  transcription  and  translation,  was  given 
by  me  in  the  Babylonian  and  Oriental  Record  for 
December  1886. 

1  Literally,  *'  I  do  not  take  counsel,  myself  I  am  not  wise  (Sumerian  : 
Dimmu  nu-mundib,  ni-mu  nu-mushtugmen  ;  Assyrian  :  Dheme  ul  tsabtaku, 
ramani  -ill  khasaku}. 

•  Better,  perhaps,  "  Like  the  marshland,  day  and  night  I  groan." 



THIS  inscription  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I.  is  the  longest 
and  most  important  of  the  early  Assyrian  records 
that  have  come  down  to  us.  The  genealogical 
details  given  in  it  are  of  great  value  for  determining 
the  chronology  and  succession  of  the  earlier  monarchs 
of  Assyria,  while  the  description  of  the  campaigns  of 
the  king  throws  a  brilliant  and  unexpected  light  on 
the  ancient  geography  of  Western  Asia.  To  the 
geographer,  indeed,  the  care  with  which  Tiglath- 
Pileser  enumerates  the  countries  he  overran  and  the 
cities  he  sacked  is  of  inestimable  importance.  A 
new  chapter  has  been  added  to  the  history  of  ancient 
geography,  and  we  now  possess  a  fairly  complete 
map  of  the  districts  north  and  north-west  of  Assyria 
before  the  overthrow  of  the  Hittite  power  had  brought 
with  it  revolution  and  change.  We  find  geographical 
names  of  similar  form  stretching  westwards  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Lake  Van  to  the  confines  of  Asia 
Minor,  together  with  evidence  that  tribes  like  those 


of  the  Moskhi  and  Tibareni,  whose  scanty  relics 
in  later  days  found  a  refuge  on  the  shores  of  the 
Black  Sea,  once  inhabited  extensive  tracts  on  the 
slopes  of  the  Taurus  Mountains.  A  new  world  has, 
in  fact,  been  opened  up  to  the  geographer. 

Equally  new  is  the  world  that  has  been  opened 
up  to  the  historian.  The  date  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I 
can  be  approximately  fixed  by  the  help  of  an  inscrip- 
tion of  Sennacherib.  On  the  rock  of  Bavian  (W.  A.  I. 
iii.  14,  48-50)  Sennacherib  refers  to  "  Rimmon  and 
Sala,  the  gods  of  the  City  of  Palaces  (Ekallati\ 
which  Merodach-nadin-akhi,  King  of  Accad,  had 
taken  and  carried  away  to  Babylon  in  the  time  of 
Tiglath-Pileser,  King  of  Assyria";  and  he  goes  on 
to  say  that  he  himself  had  "  brought  them  out  of 
Babylon  4 1 8  years  afterwards."  As  the  restora- 
tion of  the  images  took  place  after  Sennacherib's 
destruction  of  Babylon  in  B.C.  688,  the  date  of  their 
capture  by  Merodach-nadin-akhi  would  be  B.C.  1 1 06. 
The  conquests  and  campaigns  described  in  Tiglath- 
Pileser's  inscription  must  therefore  be  placed  before 
this  year. 

The  expeditions  of  Tiglath-Pileser,  however,  bore 
but  little  fruit.  They  were  not  much  more  than 
raids,  whose  effects  passed  away  after  the  death  of 
the  king  who  conducted  them.  In  a  fragmentary 
inscription  of  his  son  and  successor,  Assur-bil-kala, 
mention  is  made  of  "  the  land  of  the  west,"  or 
Phcenicia,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  further 
campaigns  weie  carried  on  in  this  direction.  Assyria 


fell  into  a  state  of  decay  ;  its  frontier  cities  passed 
into  other  hands,  and  for  nearly  two  hundred  years 
it  is  hidden  altogether  from  sight.  It  was  not  until 
the  ninth  century  before  our  era  that  under  the  war- 
like Assur-natsir-pal  and  his  son  Shalmaneser  II  it 
once  more  became  a  name  of  terror  to  Western  Asia. 
Tip;lath-Pileser  I  remained  the  central  figure  of  the 

o  o 

older  empire,  towering  above  his  fellows  on  the 
Assyrian  throne.  When  the  ancient  line  of  princes 
became  extinct,  and  the  crown  was  seized  by  the 
usurper  Pul,  the  new  king  knew  of  no  better  way  in 
which  to  legitimise  his  claim  to  sovereignty  than  by 
assuming  the  time-honoured  name  of  Tukulti-pal- 
Esar  or  Tiglath-Pileser,  "  the  servant  of  (Uras)  the 
divine  son  of  Esarra." 

Though  Tiglath-Pileser  was  not  brought  into 
direct  relations  with  Palestine,  it  is  probable  that  his 
wars,  followed  as  they  were  by  the  temporary  decay 
of  Assyria,  had  much  to  do  with  the  rise  of  the  em- 
pire of  David.  The  wars  of  Tiglath-Pileser  weakened 
the  power  of  the  Hittites  in  the  north,  and  allowed 
the  small  states  of  Syria  to  make  head  against  them. 
For  more  than  a  century  the  latter  had  no  powerful 
neighbours  to  fear  or  court.  Egypt  had  passed 
under  eclipse,  and  was  divided  between  rival  dynasties 
of  kings,  while  Assyria  had  equally  ceased  to  be 
formidable.  When  David  and  Joab  built  up  the 
empire  of  Israel,  there  was  no  strong  enemy  to 
oppose  and  attack  them.  Hadadezer  of  Zobah 
might  go  "  to  recover  his  border  at  the  river " 


Euphrates;  there  was  no  Hittite  or  Assyrian  monarch 
to  stand  in  his  way. 

The  inscription  of  Tiglath-Pileser  I  is  inscribed 
on  four  large  octagonal  cylinders  of  clay,  origin- 
ally buried  under  the  foundations  of  the  four  corners 
of  the  great  temple  of  Kileh  Sherghat,  the  ancient 
city  of  Assur,  and  now  in  the  British  Museum  ;  and 
it  has  been  published  in  the  Cuneiform  Inscriptions  of 
Western  Asia,  i.  pi.  ix.-xvi.  In  1857  the  inscription 
was  selected  for  testing  the  substantial  correctness  of 
the  method  employed  by  the  Assyriologists,  and  of 
the  results  obtained  by  them.  On  the  proposal  of 
the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  four  translations  of  it, 
more  or  less  complete,  were  made  independently  by 
Sir  Henry  Rawlinson,  Mr.  Fox  Talbot,  Dr.  Hincks, 
and  Dr.  Oppert,  and  submitted  under  seal  to  the 
secretary  of  the  Society.  When  opened  and  com- 
pared, it  was  found  that  they  exhibited  a  remarkable 
resemblance  to  one  another  as  regards  both  the 
transliteration  of  proper  names  and  the  rendering  of 
individual  passages.  The  resemblance,  in  fact,  was 
greater  than  could  be  accounted  for,  except  on  the 
assumption  that  the  method  employed  by  the 
decipherers  was  a  sound  one,  and  that  they  were 
working  on  a  solid  basis.  Since  1857  immense 
advances  have  been  made  in  our  knowledge  of 
Assyrian.  Characters  whose  values  were  then  un- 
known, and  words  whose  meaning  was  obscure, 
are  now  familiar  to  the  student ;  and  a  historical 
inscription  like  that  of  Tiglath-Pileser  presents 


but    few    difficulties     to     the    Assyriologist    of    to- 

In  1880  the  inscription  was  re-edited  and  trans- 
lated with  notes  and  glossary  by  Dr.  W.  Lotz  under 
the  auspices  of  his  teacher,  Prof.  Fr.  Delitzsch.  The 
translation  embodied  all  the  stores  of  increased 
knowledge  which  the  incessant  labour  of  twenty-three 
years  had  accumulated,  and  it  is  only  in  a  compara- 
tively few  passages  that  it  can  be  improved.  The 
English  reader  may  now  consider  that  he  has  before 
him  the  actual  words  of  the  old  Assyrian  king,  and  can 
use  them  for  historical  and  geographical  purposes 
without  fear  or  reservation.  The  foot-notes  will  be 
found  to  contain  all  the  geographical  information  at 
present  attainable  relative  to  the  localities  mentioned 
in  the  text. 

A  word  or  two  must  be  added  on  the  name  of 
the  divinity  to  whom  Tiglath-Pileser  was  dedicated 
by  his  parents.  This  deity  represented  the  Sun-god 
primitively  worshipped  at  Nipur  (now  Niffer)  in 
Babylonia,  who  afterwards  came  to  be  regarded  as  a 
sort  of  Chaldean  Herakles.  He  is  the  only  deity 
of  the  first  rank  whose  name  is  still  a  matter  of 
dispute.  It  is  generally  given  as  Adar  in  default  of 
anything  better,  but  the  reading  is  certainly  false. 
According  to  the  monuments  he  was  called  Uras  in 
Accadian,  and  also  in  Semitic,  when  regarded  as 
"  the  god  of  light."  But  he  was  further  known  in 
Assyrian  as  Baru  "  the  revealer,"  though  we  learn 
from  a  Babylonian  text  recently  discovered  in  Upper 


Egypt  that  his  more  usual  title  was  Masu,  "the 
hero,"  a  word  which  is,  letter  for  letter,  the  same 
as  the  Hebrew  Mosheh,  "  Moses."  Masu  is  defined 
as  being  "  the  Sun-god  who  rises  from  the  divine  day." 
As  such  he  was  identified  with  one  of  the  primaeval 
gods  of  Accadian  cosmology,  and  so  became  "  the 
son  of  fi-sarra,"  or  "  the  house  of  the  firmament." 
See  my  Lectures  on  the  Religion  of  the  Ancient  Baby- 
lonians, pp.  151-153. 



T.  ASUR  the  great  lord,  the  director  of  the  hosts  of  the 

2.  the  giver  of  the  sceptre  and  the  crown,  the  establisher 

of  the  kingdom ; 

3.  BEL,  the  lord  (#/«),  the  king  of  all  the  spirits  of  the 


4.  the  father  of  the  gods,  the  lord  of  the  world ; 

5.  SIN  (the  Moon-god),  the  sentient  one,  the  lord  of  the 


6.  the  exalted  one,  the  god  of  the  storm  -}l 

7.  SAMAS  (the  Sun-god),  the  judge  of  heaven  and  earth, 

who  beholds 

8.  the  plots  of  the  enemy,  who  feeds  the  flock ; 

9.  RIMMON   (the  Air-god),   the   prince,   the  immdator  of 

hostile  shores, 

10.   of  countries  (and)  houses;2 
IT.  URAS,  the  hero,  the  destroyer  of  evil  men  and  foes, 

12.  who  discloses  all  that  is  in  the  heart; 

13.  ISTAR,  the  eldest  of  the  gods,  the  lady  of  girdles, 

1 4.  the  strengthener  of  battles. 

15.  Ye  great  gods,  guiders  of  heaven  (and)  earth, 

1 6.  whose  onset  (is)  opposition  and  combat, 

17.  who  have  magnified  the  kingdom 

1 8.  of  Tiglath-Pileser,  the  prince,  the  chosen 

1  Identified  with  Ea  in  W.  A.  I.,  ii.  60,  21.  2  Or  "hollows." 


1 9.  of  the  desire  of  your  hearts,  the  exalted  shepherd, 

20.  whom  you  have  conjured  in  the  steadfastness  of  your 


21.  with  a  crown  supreme  you  have  clothed  him ;  to  rule 

22.  over  the  land  of  BEL  mightily  you  have  established 

him ; 

23.  priority  of  birth,  supremacy  (and)  heroism 

24.  have  you  given  him ;  the  destiny  of  his  lordship 

25.  for  his  increase  and  supremacy, 

26.  to  inhabit  Bit-kharsag-kurkurra 1 

27.  for  ever  have  you  summoned. 

28.  Tiglath-Pileser,  the  powerful  king, 

29.  the  king  of  hosts  who  has  no  rival,  the  king  of  the 

four  zones, 

30.  the  king  of  all  kinglets,  the  lord  of  lords,  the  shepherd- 

prince,  the  king  of  kings, 

31.  the  exalted  prophet,2  to  whom  by  the  proclamation  of 


32.  the  illustrious  sceptre  has  been  given  as  a  gift,  so  that 

the  men 

33.  who  are  subject  to  BEL  he  has  ruled 

34.  in  (their)  entirety ;  the  faithful  shepherd, 

35.  proclaimed  (lord)  over  kinglets, 

36.  the  supreme  governor  whose  weapons  ASUR 

37.  has  predestined,  and  for  the  government  of  the  four 


38.  has  proclaimed  his  name  for  ever ;  the  capturer 

39.  of  the  distant  divisions  3  of  the  frontiers 

1  "  The  Temple  of  the  Mountain  of  the  World,"  the  name  of  an  old 
temple  in  the  city  of  Assur,  which  had  been  restored  by  Shalmaneser  I 
(B.C.    1300).       In  early  Babylonian   mythology   "the   Mountain  of  the 
World  "  was  the  Olympos  on  which  the  gods  dwelt,  and  which  was  iden- 
tified with  Mount  Rowandiz.     It  is  referred  to  in  Isaiah  xiv.  13,  where  the 
Babylonian  king  is  made  to  say  :   "I  will  ascend  into  heaven,  I  will  exalt 
my  throne  above  the  stars  of  Elohim  :  I  will  sit  also  on  the  mount  of  the 
assembly  (of  the  gods)  in  the  extremities  of  the  north.     I  will  ascend  above 
the  heights  of  the  clouds  ;  I  will  be  like  the  most  High." 

2  Isippu,  related  to  asipu,    "a  diviner,"  which  was  borrowed  by  the 
Book  of  Daniel  under  the  form  ashshaph,  and  may  have  the  same  origin  as 
the  name  of  Joseph. 

3  Pulugi,  the  Hebrew  Peleg,  in  whose  days  the  earth  was  "  divided." 


40.  above  and  below  ;  the  illustrious  prince 

41.  whose  glory  has  overwhelmed  (all)  regions; 

42.  the  mighty  destroyer,1  who  like  the  rush 

43.  of  a  flood  is  made  strong  against  the  hostile  land  ; 

44.  by  the  proclamation  of  BEL  he  has  no  rival ; 

45.  he  has  destroyed  the  foeman  of  ASUR. 

46.  May  ASUR  (and)  the  great  gods  who  have  magnified 

my  kingdom, 

47.  who  have  given  increase  and  strength  to  my  fetters, 

48.  (who)  have  ordered  the  boundary  of  their  land 

49.  to  be  enlarged,  cause  my  hand  to  hold 

50.  their  mighty  weapons,  even  the  deluge  of  battle. 

51.  Countries,  mountains, 

52.  fortresses  and  kinglets,  the  enemies  of  ASSUR, 

53.  I  have  conquered,  and  their  territories 

54.  I  have  made  submit.     With  sixty  kings, 

55.  I  have  contended  furiously,2  and 
5  6.  power  (and)  rivalry  over  them 

57.  I  displayed.     A  rival  in  the  combat, 

58.  a  confronter  in  the  battle  have  I  not. 

59.  To  the  land  of  ASSYRIA  I  have  added  land,  to  its  men 

60.  (I  have  added)  men ;  the  boundary  of  my  own  land 

6 1.  I  have  enlarged,  and  all  their  lands  I  have  conquered. 

62.  At  the  beginning  of  my  reign  twenty  thousand  men 

63.  of  the  MusKAYA3  and  their  five  kings, 

64.  who  for  fifty  years  from  the  lands  of  Ai,zi4 

1  Naplu,  probably  the  same  word  as  the  Nephilim  or  "giants  "  of  Gen. 
vi.  4  and  Numb.  xiii.  33.      Sennacherib,  in  describing  the  construction  of 
his  palace,  says  :    "A  railing  of  three  bronze  cords  and  the  divine  Napallu 
I  erected  above  it,"  where  "the  divine  Napallu"  probably  refers  to  the 
image  of  a  protecting  deity. 

2  Literally,  "  in  drunken  fashion  "  (sutkuris], 

3  The  Meshech   of  the  Old  Testament,  the    Moschi  of  the  classical 
writers,  who  in  Assyrian  times  occupied  the  country  to  the  north  of  Mala- 
tiyeh.     In  the  later  Assyrian    inscriptions  they  are  associated   with   the 
Tubal  or  Tibareni,  as  in  the  Old  Testament. 

4  Alzi  lay  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  Euphrates,  between  Palu  and 
Khini,  and  included  Enzite,  the  Anzite'ne'  of  classical  geography   (at  the 


65.  and  Purukuzzi  had  taken  the  tribute 

66.  and  gifts  owing  to  ASUR  my  lord, — 

67.  no  king  at  all  in  battle 

68.  had  subdued  their  opposition — to  their  strength 

69.  trusted  and  came  down;  the  land  of  KuMMUKH1 

70.  they  seized.     Trusting  in  ASUR  my  lord 

71.  I  assembled  my  chariots  and  armies. 

72.  Thereupon  I  delayed  not.2     The  mountain  of  KASI- 


73.  a  difficult  region,  I  crossed, 

74.  with  their  twenty  thousand  fighting  men 

75.  and  their  five  kings  in  the  land  of  KUMMUKH 

76.  I  contended.     A  destruction  of  them 

77.  I  made.     The  bodies  of  their  warriors 

78.  in  destructive  battle  like  the  inundator  (RIMMON) 

79.  I  overthrew;  their  corpses  I  spread 

80.  over  the  valleys  and  the  high  places  of  the  mountains. 

8 1.  Their  heads  I  cut  off;  at  the  sides 

82.  of  their  cities  I  heaped  (them)  like  mounds. 

83.  Their  spoil,  their  property,  their  goods, 

84.  to  a  countless  number  I  brought  forth.     Six  thousand 


85.  the  relics  of  their  armies,  which  before 

86.  my  weapons  had  fled,  took 

87.  my  feet.      I  laid  hold  upon  them  and 

88.  counted  them  among  the  men  of  my  own  country. 

89.  In  those  days,  against  KUMMUKH,  the  disobedient, 

90.  which  had  withheld  the  tribute  and  gifts  for  ASUR  my 


91.  I  marched.     The  land  of  KUMMUKH 

92.  I  conquered  throughout  its  circuit. 

sources  of  the  Sebbeneh  Su).  Alzi  was  invaded  by  the  Vannic  king 
Menuas,  who  says  that  it  formed  part  of  the  territory  of  the  Khate  or 

1  Kummukh,  the  classical  Komagene,  extended  in  the  Assyrian  age  on 
either  side  of  the  Euphrates,  from  Malatiyeh  in  the  north  to  Birejik  in  the 
south,  Merash  probably  being  one  of  its  cities. 

2  Literally,  "  I  awaited  not  the  future." 

3  Mons  Masius,  the  modern  Tur  Abdin. 


93.  Their  spoil,  their  property,  their  goods 

94.  I  brought  forth ;  their  cities  with  fire 


1.  I  burned,  I  threw  down,  I  dug  up.     The  rest 

2.  of  (the  men  of)  KUMMUKH,  who  before  my  weapons 

3.  had  fled,  to  the  city  of  SERESSE  l 

4.  on  the  further  bank  of  the  TIGRIS 

5.  passed  over;  the  city  for  their  stronghold 

6.  they  made.      My  chariots  and  warriors 

7.  I  took.     The  difficult  mountains  and  their  inaccess- 


8.  paths  with  picks  of  bronze 

9.  I  split.     A  pontoon  for  the  passage 

10.  of  my  chariots  and  army  I  contrived. 

11.  The  TIGRIS  I  crossed.     The  city  of  SERISE, 

12.  their  strong  city,  I  captured. 

13.  Their  fighting  men,  in  the  midst  of  the  mountains, 

14.  I  flung  to  the  ground  like  sling-stones  (?).2 

15.  Their  corpses  over  the  TIGRIS  and  the  high  places  of 

the  mountains 

1 6.  I  spread.     In  those  days  the  armies 

17.  of  the   land   of  QURKHE,S  which    for    the    preserva- 


1 8.  and  help  of  the  land  of  KUMMUKH 

19.  had  come,  along  with  the  armies 

20.  of  KUMMUKH,  like  a  moon-stone  I  laid  low. 

21.  The  corpses  of  their  fighting  men  into  heaps 

22.  in  the  ravines  of  the  mountains  I  heaped  up; 

23.  the  bodies  of  their  soldiers  the  river  NAME 

1  This  must  have  been  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Amid  or  Diarbekir.     The 
Vannic  king  Menuas  mentions  a  Hittite  city,  Surisidas,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Alzi.     Delitzsch  compares  the  Sareisa  of  Strabo. 

2  Sutmasi.     In  R.  204.  i.  22  sa  sammasi  is  interpreted   "a  slinger," 
and  in  W.  A.  I.,  iv.  13,  5,  samsd  is  "a  sling-stone." 

3  The   land   of  Qurkhi    extended   eastward   of   Diarbekir,   along   the 
northern  bank  of  the  Tigris.     The  name  is  preserved  in  that  of  Kurkh, 
20  miles  S.  E.  of  Diarbekir,  where  there  are  ruins,  and  where  a  stelS  of  Shal- 
maneser  II  has  been  discovered. 


24.  carried  away  into  the  TIGRIS. 

25.  Kili-anteru  the  son  of  Kali-anteru, 

26.  (the  descendant)  of  Saru-pin-'siusuni,1 

27.  their  king  in  the  midst  of  battle  my  hand 

28.  captured;  his  wives  (and)  children 

29.  the  offspring  of  his  heart,  his  troops,  180 

30.  bronze  plates,  5  bowls  of  copper, 

31.  along  with  their  gods,  gold  (and)  silver, 

32.  the  choicest  of  their  property,  I  removed. 

33.  Their  spoil  (and)  their  goods  I  carried  away. 

34.  The  city  itself  and  its  palace  with  fire 

35.  I  burned,  I  pulled  down,  (and)  dug  up. 

36.  As  for  the  city  of  URRAKHINAS,  their  stronghold, 

37.  which  was  situated  on  the  mountain  of  PANARI, 

38.  fear  that  avoided  the  glory  of  ASSUR  my  lord 

39.  overwhelmed  them.     To  save 

40.  their  lives  they  removed  their  gods ; 

41.  to  the  ravines  of  the  lofty  mountains 

42.  they  fled  like  a  bird.     My  chariots 

43.  and  armies  I  took ;  I  crossed  the  TIGRIS. 

44.  Sadi-anteru,  the  son  of  Khattukhi,2  the  king 

45.  of  URRAKHINAS,  that  he  might  not  be  conquered, 

46.  in  that  country  took  my  feet. 

47.  The  children,  the  offspring  of  his  heart,  and  his  family 

48.  I  took  as  hostages. 

49.  Sixty  bronze  plates,  a  bowl  of  copper, 

50.  and  a  tray  of  heavy  copper, 

51.  along  with  120  men,  oxen, 

52.  (and)  sheep,  as  tribute  and  offering 

1  Sarpina  was  the  name  of  one  of  the  Hittite  cities,  whose  god  was  in- 
voked in  the  treaty  between  Ramses  II  and  the  Hittite  king.  With  the 
termination  we  may  compare  that  of  Abar-'siuni  in  iv.  82. 

2  The  first  part  of  the  name  Sadi-anteru,  which  reminds  us  of  the 
Lydian  Sady-att6s,  may  contain  the  name  of  the  god  Sanda  or  Sandon. 
A  Hittite  prince  mentioned  by  the  Vannic  king  Menuas  was  called  Sada- 
hadas.  Khattu-khi  means  "the  Hittite,"  the  suffix  -khi,  as  in  Vannic, 
denoting  a  patronymic  or  gentilic  adjective.  Urra  -  khi  -  nas  is  similarly 
derived  from  Urra,  the  termination  -khi-nas,  in  Vannic,  denoting  ' '  the  place 
of  the  people  of." 

VOL.  I  H 


53.  (which)  he  brought,  I  received.     I  had  compassion  on 

him ; 

54.  I  granted  his  life.     The  heavy  yoke 

55.  of  my  lordship  I  laid  upon  him  for  future  days. 

56.  The  broad  land  of  KUMMUKH  throughout  its  circuit 

57.  I  conquered;  under  my  feet  I  subdued. 

58.  In  those  days  a  tray  of  copper  (and)  a  bowl 

59.  of  copper,  from  the  spoil  and  tribute 

60.  of  KUMMUKH  I  dedicated  to  ASUR  my  lord. 

6 1.  The  sixty  bronze  plates  along  with  their  gods 

62.  I  presented  to  RIMMON  who  loves  me. 

63.  Through  the  violence  of  my  powerful  weapons,  which 

ASSUR  the  lord 

64.  gave  for  strength  and  heroism, 

65.  in  thirty  of  my  chariots  that  go  at  my  side 

66.  my  fleet  steeds1  (and)  my  soldiers, 

67.  who  are  strong  2  in  destructive  fight, 

68.  I  took ;  against  the  country  of  MILDIS,  the  powerful, 

69.  the  disobedient,  I  marched.     Mighty  mountains, 

70.  an  inaccessible  district, 

71.  (where  it  was)  good  in  my  chariots  (where  it  was)  bad 

on  my  feet, 

72.  I  crossed.     At  the  mountain  of  ARUMA, 

73.  a  difficult  district,  which  for  the  passage  of  my  chariots 

74.  was  not  suited,  I  left  the  chariots, 

75.  I  took  the  lead  of  my  soldiers. 

76.  Like  a  lion  (?)  the  obstacles  (?)  in  the  ravines  of  the 

inaccessible  mountains 

77.  victoriously  I  crossed. 

78.  The  land  of  MILDIS  like  the  flood3  of  the  deluge  I 


79.  Their  fighting  men  in  the  midst  of  battle 

80.  like  a  moon-stone  I  laid  low.     Their  spoil 

8 1.  their  goods  (and)  their  property  I  carried  away. 

1  Literally  "  complete  horses. "  2  Lit. 

3  Literally  "mound"  or  ''tel." 


82.  All  their  cities  I  burned  with  fire. 

83.  Hostages,  tribute  and  offering 

84.  I  imposed  upon  them. 

85.  Tiglath-pileser,  the  hero,  the  warrior, 

86.  who  opens  the  path  of  the  mountains, 

87.  who  subdues  the  disobedient,  who  sweeps  away 

88.  all  the  overweening. 

89.  The  land  of  SuBARi,1  the  powerful,  the  disobedient, 

90.  I  subdued.     As  for  the  countries  of  ALZI 

91.  and  PURUKUZZI,  which  had  withheld 

92.  their  tribute  and  their  offering, 

93.  the  heavy  yoke  of  my  lordship  upon  them 

94.  I  laid,  (saying),  each  year  tribute  and  offering 

95.  to  my  city  of  ASUR,  to  my  presence, 

96.  let  them  bring.     In  accordance  with  my  valour, 

97.  since  ASUR  the  lord  has  caused  my  hand  to  hold 

98.  the  mighty  weapon  which  subdues  the  disobedient, 


99.  to  enlarge  the  frontier  of  his  country 

100.  has  commanded  (me),  4000  men  of  the  KASKA2 

1 01.  and    of    the    URUMA,3    soldiers    of    the    HITTITES 


102.  disobedient  ones,  who  in  their  strength 

1  Subari,   called  Subarti  a  few  lines  farther  on,  had  been  overrun  by 
Rimmon-nirari  I.    (B.C.    1330),  and  was  afterwards  conquered  by  Assur- 
natsir-pal,  who  describes  it  as  situated  between  Qurkhi  and  Nirib,  or  the 
plain  of  Diarbekir.     As  Qurkhi  lay  "opposite  the  land  of  the  Hittites," 
Subari  would  have  adjoined  the  territory  of  the  latter  people,  in  the  im- 
mediate vicinity  of  Alzi  and  Purukuzzi. 

2  This  seems  to  be  the  same  word  as  the  Kolkhians  of  classical  geo- 
graphy, though  the  seat  of  the  Kolkhians  was  far  to  the  north  of  that  of 
the   Kaska.      In   the  classical  period,   however,  we  find  that  the  Moschi 
and  Tibareni  (Meshech  and  Tubal)  had  also  shifted  far  to  the  north  of 
their  habitat    in  Assyrian  times,   and  like  the  Kolkhians  had  settled  on 
the  shores  of  the  Black  Sea.     A  town  of  Kolkhis,  now  represented  by  the 
name  of  Lake  Goldshik,  lay  to  the  S.  W.  of  Palu. 

3  Uruma  may  be  the  Urima  of  classical  geography,  the  modern  Urum. 
It  is  called  Urume-  of  Bitanu  by  Assur-natsir-pal,  Bitanu  being  the  district 
south  of  Lake  Van. 



1.  had  seized  the  cities  of  SUBARTI  which  looked  to 

2.  the  face1  of  ASUR  my  lord, 

3.  heard  of  my  march  against  the  land  of  SUBARTI  ; 

4.  the  glory  of  my  valour  overwhelmed  them  ; 

5.  they  avoided  battle  ;  my  feet 

6.  they  took. 

7.  Together  with  their  property  and  120 

8.  chariots  (and  the  horses)  harnessed  to  their  yokes 

9.  I  took  them ;  as  the  men 

i  o.  of  my  own  country  I  counted  them. 

TI.   In  the  fierceness  of  my  valour  for  the  second  time 

12.  to  the  country  of  KUMMUKH  I  marched.     All 

13.  their  cities  I  captured.     Their  spoil 

14.  their  goods  and  their  property  I  carried  away. 

15.  Their  cities  with  fire  I  burned, 

1 6.  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up,  and  the  relics 

17.  of  their  armies,  who  before  my  powerful  weapons 

1 8.  were  terror-stricken  and  the  onset  of  my  mighty  battle 

19.  avoided,  to  save 

20.  their  lives  sought  the  mighty  summits 

21.  of  the  mountains,  an  inaccessible  region. 
2  2.   To  the  fastnesses  of  the  lofty  ranges 

23.  and  the  ravines  of  the  inaccessible  mountains 

24.  which  were  unsuited  for  the  tread  of  men 

25.  I  ascended  after  them.     Trial  of  weapons,  combat 

26.  and  battle  they  essayed  with  me. 

27.  A  destruction  of  them  I  made.     The  bodies 

28.  of  their  warriors  in  the  ravines  of  the  mountains 

29.  like    the    inundator    (RIMMON)    I    overthrew.       Their 


30.  over  the  valleys  and  high  places  of  the  mountains 

31.  I  spread.     Their  spoil,  their  goods 

32.  and  their  property  from  the  mighty 

1  That  is,  were  subject  to. 


33.  summits  of  the  mountains  I  brought  down. 

34.  The  land  of  KUMMUKH  to   its  whole  extent   I   sub- 

jugated, and 

35.  added  to  the  territory  of  my  country. 

36.  Tiglath-pileser  the  powerful  king, 

37.  the  mighty  overwhelmer  of  the  disobedient,  he  who 

sweeps  away 

38.  the  opposition  of  the  wicked. 

39.  In  the  supreme  power  of  ASUR  my  lord 

40.  against    the   land    of   KnARiA1    and    the    widespread 


41.  of  the  land  of  QURKHI, — lofty  mountain-ranges 

42.  whose  site  no  king  at  all 

43.  had  sought  out — ASUR  the  lord  commanded  (me) 

44.  to  march.     My  chariots  and  armies 

45.  I  assembled.     The  neighbourhood2  of  the  mountains 

of IDNI 

46.  and  AYA,  an  inaccessible  district,  I  reached, 

47.  lofty  mountains,  which  like  the  point  of  a  sword 

48.  were  formed,  which  for  the  passage  of  my  chariots 

49.  were  unsuited.     The  chariots  in  idleness 

50.  I  left  there.     The  precipitous  mountains 

51.  I  crossed.     All  the  land  of  QURKHI 

52.  had  collected  its  widespread  armies,  and 

53.  to  make  trial  of  arms,  combat  and  battle 

54.  in  the  mountain  of  AZUTABGISS  was  stationed,  and 

55.  in  the  mountain,  an  inaccessible  spot,  with  them 

56.  I  fought,  a  destruction  of  them  I  made. 

1  It  is  clear  that  Kharia  was  a  district  of  Qurkhi  which  lay  eastward  of 
Diarbekir  and  the  Supnat  or  Sebeneh  Su,  in  the  direction  of  Bitlis.      It  is 
perhaps  the  Arua  of  Assur-natsir-pal  which  adjoined  the  western  frontier  of 
Ararat,  a  kingdom  at  that  time  confined  to  Lake  Van  and  the  district 
south  of  the  Lake.     The  name  reminds  us  of  the  classical  Korra,  now 
Karia,  a  little  to  the  south-east  of  Kolkhis  (on  Lake  Goldshik),  and  to  the 
north-west  of  Diarbekir. 

2  Birti,  from  baru  "to  see." 

3  Perhaps  to  be  read  Azues. 


57.  The  bodies  of  their  warriors  on  the  high  places  of  the 


58.  into  heaps  I  heaped. 

59.  The  corpses  of  their  warriors  over  the  valleys  and  high 


60.  of  the  mountains  I  spread.     Against  the  cities 

6 1.  which  were  situated  in  the  ravines  of  the  mountains 


62.  I  pierced  (my  way).1     Twenty-five  cities  of  the  land 


63.  which  lie  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  of  AYA,  SUIRA, 


64.  Sizu,  SELGU,  ARZANIBIU,  URU'SU,  and  ANITKU, 

65.  I  captured.     Their  spoil, 

66.  their  goods  and  their  property  I  carried  off. 

67.  Their  cities  with  fire  I  burned, 

68.  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up. 

69.  The  country  of  ADAUS  feared  the  onset  of  my  mighty 


70.  and  their  dwelling-place  (the  inhabitants)  abandoned. 

71.  To  the  ravines  of  the  lofty  mountains 

72.  like  birds  they  fled.     The  glory  of  ASSUR  my  lord 

73.  overwhelmed  them,  and 

74.  they  descended  and  took  my  feet. 

75.  Tribute  and  offering  I  imposed  upon  them. 

76.  The  lands  of  'SARAUS  and  AMMAUS 

77.  which  from  days  immemorial  had  not  known 

78.  subjection,  like  the  flood  of  the  deluge 

79.  I  overwhelmed.     With  their  armies 

80.  on  the  mountain  of  ARUMA2  I  fought,  and 

8 1.  a  destruction  of  them  I  made.     The  bodies 

82.  of  their  fighting-men  like  sling-stones  (?) 

1  Aznig,  not  a  snig. 

2  As,  according  to  ii.  78,  Aruma  lay  on  the  frontier  of  Mildis,  Adaus, 
'Saraus,  and  Ammaus  must  have  been  Kurdish  districts  to  the  eastward 
of  Kummukh.     The  country  of  Adaus  is  mentioned  by  Assur-natsir-pal 
in  connection  with  Kirruri,  which  lay  between  Nimme  and  Qurkhi. 


83.  I  flung  to  the  ground.     Their  cities  I  captured. 

84.  Their  gods  I  removed.     Their  spoil, 

85.  their  goods  (and)  their  property  I  carried  away. 

86.  Their  cities  with  fire  I  burned, 

87.  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up;  to  mounds  and  ruins 

88.  I  reduced.     The  heavy  yoke  of  my  lordship 

89.  I  laid  upon  them.     The  face  of  ASSUR  my  lord 

90.  I  made  them  behold.1 

91.  The  powerful  countries  of  I'suA2  and  DARIA 

92.  which  were  disobedient  I  conquered.     Tribute 

93.  and  offering  I  imposed  upon  them. 

94.  The  face  of  ASSUR  my  lord  I  caused  them  to  behold. 

95.  In  my  supremacy  when  my  enemies 

96.  I  had  conquered,  my  chariots  and  armies 

97.  I  took.     The  lower  Zab3 

98.  I  crossed.    The  countries  of  MURATTAS  and  SARADAUS 

99.  which  are  in  the  midst  of  the  mountains  of  A'SANIU 

and  ADHUMA 

100.  an  inaccessible  region,  I  conquered. 

101.  Their  armies  like  lambs 

102.  I  cut  down.     The  city  of  MURATTAS, 

103.  their  stronghold,  in  the  third  part  of  a  day 

104.  from  sunrise  I  captured. 

105.  Their  gods,  their  goods,  (and)  their  property, 

1 06.  60  plates  of  bronze, 


i.   30  talents  of  bronze  in  fragments,4  (and)  the  smaller 

1  That  is,  "I  reduced  them  to  subjection  to  Assur." 

2  I'sua,  according  to  Shalmaneser  II,  adjoined  Enzite  or  Anzitene"  (on 
the  Sebbeneh  Su)  and  lay  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  Arsanias  between 
Palu  and  Mush.      It   is  probably  the  U'su  of  Assur-natsir-pal,    on  the 
western  frontier  of  Arua  (see  note  on  iii.  40). 

3  The  lower  Zab  falls  into  the  Tigris  a  little  below  Kalah  Sherghat 
(Assur).      It  rises  in  the  Kurdish  mountains,  flowing  past  Arbela,  and  was 
called   Kapros  by  the  classical  geographers  in  contradistinction  to   the 
Lykos  or  Upper  Zab. 

4  This  seems  to  be  the  meaning  of  sabartum  in  K  1999,  i.  15. 


2.  of  their  palace,  their  spoil 

3.  I  carried  away.     The  city  itself  with  fire 

4.  I  burned,  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up. 

5.  In  those  days  that  bronze 

6.  I  dedicated  to  RIMMON  the  great  lord  who  loves  me. 

7.  In  the  mightiness  of  the  power  of  ASUR  my  lord 

8.  against  the  lands  of  'Suci  and  QURKHI,  which  had  not 


9.  to  ASUR  my  lord,  I  marched.     With  6000 

10.  of  their  troops  from  the  lands  of  KHIME,  LUKHI, 


12.  NIMNI  and  all  the  land  of  QURKHI 

13.  far-extending,  on  the  mountain  of  KHIRIKHI, 

14.  an  inaccessible  district,  which  like  the  point  of  a  sword 

15.  was  formed,  with  all  those  countries 

1 6.  on  my  feet  I  fought. 

17.  A  destruction  of  them  I  made. 

1 8.  Their  fighting-men  in  the  ravines  of  the  mountains 

19.  into  heaps  I  heaped. 

20.  With    the    blood    of  their  warriors   the   mountain    of 


2 1.  like  wool  (?)  I  dyed. 

22.  The  land  of  'Suci  throughout  its  circuit  I  conquered 

23.  Their  25  gods,  their  spoil, 

24.  their  goods  (and)  their  property  I  carried  away. 

25.  All  their  cities  with  fire 

26.  I  burnt,  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up. 

27.  Those  who  were  left  of  their  armies  took  my  feet ; 

28.  I  showed  favour  towards  them. 

29.  Tribute  and  offering  upon  them 

30.  I  imposed;  along  with  those  who  behold  the  face 

31.  of  ASUR  my  lord  I  counted  them. 

32.  In  those  days  the  25  gods  of  those  lands, 

33.  the  acquisitions  of  my  hands, 

34.  which  I  had  taken,  to  gratify  (?)  the  temple  of  BELTIS 

35.  the  great  wife,  the  favourite  of  ASUR  my  lord, 


36.  ANU,  RIMMON  (and)  ISTAR  of  ASSUR, 

37.  as  well  as  the  palaces  of  my  city  ASSUR 

38.  and  the  goddesses  of  my  country 

39.  I  gave.  

40.  Tiglath-pileser  the  powerful  king, 

4 1 .  the  conqueror  of  hostile  regions,  the  rival 

42.  of  the  company  of  all  kings. 

43.  In  those  days  through  the  supreme  power 

44.  of  ASUR  my  lord,  through  the  everlasting  grace 

45.  of  SAMAS  the  warrior,  through  the  ministry 

46.  of  the  great  gods,  who  in  the  four  zones 

47.  rule  in  righteousness,  and  have  no  vanquisher 

48.  in  the  combat,  no  rival  in  the  battle, 

49.  to  the  lands  of  distant  kings 

50.  on  the  shore  of  the  upper  sea,1 

51.  who  knew  not  subjection, 

52.  ASUR  the  lord  urged  me  and  I  went. 

53.  Difficult  paths  and  trackless  passes 

54.  whose  interior  in  former  days 

55.  no  king  at  all  had  known, 

56.  steep  roads,  ways 

57.  unopened,  I  traversed. 

58.  The  mountains  of  ELAMA,  AMADANA,2  ELKHIS, 


60.  TlRKA-KHULI,   KlZRA, 





65.  and  SESI,  16  mighty  mountains, 

1  That  is,  Lake  Van. 

2  Amadana  was  the  district  about  Amida  or  Diarbekir.     Assur-natsir-pal 
reached  Amadana  after  leaving  Adana,  a  district  of  Qurkhi. 

3  Compare  the  names  of  the  Gamgumian  and  Melitenian  princes  Tarkhu- 
lara  and  Tarkhu-nazi,  and  of  the   Hittite  city  Tarkhi-gamas   mentioned 
by  the  Vannic  king  Menuas. 


66.  where  the  ground  was  good  in  my  chariots,  where  it 

was  difficult 

67.  with  picks  of  bronze,  I  penetrated. 

68.  I  cut  down  the  urum-trees  which  grow  in  the  mountains. 

69.  Bridges  for  the  passage 

70.  of  my  troops  I  constructed  well. 

71.  I  crossed  the  EUPHRATES.     The  king  of  the  land  of 


72.  the  king  of  TuNUBU,2  the  king  of  TUALI, 

73.  the  king  of  QIDARI,  the  king  of  UZULA, 

74.  the  king  of  UNZAMUNI,  the  king  of  ANDIABE, 

75.  the  king  of  PILAQINI,  the  king  of  ADHURGINI, 

76.  the  king  of  KuLi-BARZiNi,3  the  king  of  SINIBIRNI, 

77.  the  king  of  KHIMUA,  the  king  of  PAITERI,* 

78.  the  king  of  UIRAM,  the  king  of  SURURIA, 

79.  the  king  of  ABAENi,5  the  king  of  ADAENI, 

80.  the  king  of  KIRINI,  the  king  of  ALBAYA, 

8 1.  the  king  of  UGINA,  the  king  of  NAZABIA, 

82.  the  king  of  ABAR-'SIUNI,  (and)  the  king  of  DAYAENI,G 

83.  all  the  23  kings  of  the  countries  of  NAiRi,7 

84.  in  the  midst  of  their  lands  assembled 

85.  their  chariots  and  their  armies,  and 

86.  to  make  conflict  and  battle 

1  Nimme,  according  to  Assur-natsir-pal,  adjoined  Alzi  and  Dayaeni  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Mush. 

2  This  must  be  the  Dhunibun  of  Shalmaneser  II,  eastward  of  the  sources 
of  the  Tigris,  on  the  river  of  Mush  (the  modern  Kara  Su). 

3  In  the  Vannic  language  the  termination  ni(s)  denoted  "belonging  to," 
and  barzini  or  barzani  signified  "  a  chapel." 

4  The  Vannic  king  calls  the  district  in  which   Palu  stands  ' '  the  land  of 

5  Perhaps  the  Abunis  of  the  Vannic  inscriptions. 

6  Dayaeni  was  on  the  northern  bank  of  the  Arsanias,  to  the  north  of 
Mush.      It  is   called   the  kingdom  of  "  the  son  of  Diaus  "  in  the  Vannic 
texts,  which  define  it  more  closely  as  situated  on  the  Murad  Chai,  near 

7  The  land  of  Nairi  or  "the  rivers"   denoted  in  the  age  of  Tiglath- 
Pileser  I.  the  districts  at  the  sources  of  the  Tigris  and  the  Euphrates.      In 
the  time  of  Assur-natsir-pal  and  his  successors,  on  the  other  hand,  it  was 
the  country  between  Lake  Van  and  the  northern  frontier  of  Assyria,  and 
consequently  lay  to  the  south-west  of  the  Nairi  of  the  time  of  Tiglath- 
Pileser  I.     It  will  be  noticed  that  there  was  as  yet  no  kingdom  of  Ararat 
or  Van. 


87.  came  on.     With  the  violence  of  my  powerful 

88.  weapons  I  pierced  them. 

89.  An  overthrow  of  their  widespread  armies 

90.  like  the  inundation  of  RIMMON 

91.  I  made.     The  bodies  of  their  warriors 

92.  in  the  plains,  the  high  places  of  the  mountain,  and  the 


93.  of  their  cities  like  sling-stones  (?) 

94.  I  flung  to  the  ground.     One  hundred  and  twenty  of 

their  yoke-chariots 

95.  in  the  midst  of  the  combat 

96.  I  acquired.     Sixty  kings 

97.  of  the  lands  of  NAIRI  in  addition  to  those  who 

98.  had  gone  to  their  assistance 

99.  with  my  mace  I  pursued 

100.  as  far  as  the  Upper  Sea. 

1 01.  Their  great  fortresses  I  captured. 


1.  Their  spoil,  their  goods  (and)  their  property 

2.  I  carried  away.     Their  cities  with  fire 

3.  I  burned,  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up, 

4.  I  reduced  to  mounds  and  ruins. 

5.  Large  troops  of  horses, 

6.  mules,  calves,  and  the  possessions 

7.  of  their  homesteads  to  a  countless  number 

8.  I  brought  back.     All  the  kings 

9.  of  the  countries  of  NAIRI  alive  my  hand 

10.  captured.     To  those  kings 

1 1.  I  extended  mercy,  and 

12.  spared  their  lives.     Their  captivity 

13.  and  their  bondage  in  the  presence  of  SAMAS  my  lord 

14.  I  liberated,  and  an  oath  by  my  great 

1 5.  gods x  unto  future  days  for  ever 

1 6.  and  ever  that  they  should  be   (my)  servants  I  made 

them  swear. 

17.  The  children,  the  offspring  of  their  kingdom, 

1  Literally  "  the  bann  (mamit)  of  my  great  gods." 


1 8.  as  hostages  I  took. 

19.  Twelve  hundred  horses  (and)  2000  oxen 

20.  I  imposed  upon  them  as  tribute. 

21.  In  their  countries  I  left  them. 

22.  'Sieni  king  of  DAYAENI, 

23.  who  did  not  submit  to  ASUR  my  lord, 

24.  captive  and  bound  to  my  city 

25.  of  ASUR  I  brought;  mercy 

26.  I  extended  to  him,  and  from  my  city  of  ASUR, 

27.  as  the  exalter  of  the  great  gods 

28.  unto  exaltation,  alive 

29.  I  let  him  depart.     The  lands  of  NAIRI, 

30.  far-extending,  I  subdued  throughout  their  whole  extent, 

31.  and  all  their  kings 

32.  I  reduced  beneath  my  feet. 

33.  In  the  course  of  the  same  campaign 

34.  against  the  city  of  MiLiDiA,1  of  the  country  of  KHANI  2 

the  great, 

35.  violent  (and)  unsubmissive,  I  marched. 

36.  The  mighty  onset  of  my  battle  they  feared. 

37.  My  feet  they  took ;  I  had  mercy  on  them. 

38.  The  city  itself  I  did  not  capture ;  their  hostages 

39.  I  accepted.     A  homer  by  way  of  tax  of  lead 

40.  as  an  annual  tribute 

41.  not  to  be  intermitted  I  imposed  upon  them. 

42.  Tiglath-pileser,  the  destroyer,  the  quick-moving, 

43.  the  implacable,  the  deluge  of  battle. 

44.  In  the  service  of  ASUR  my  lord,  my  chariots 

45.  and  warriors  I  took.     In  the  desert 

1  The  classical  Melitene,  now  Malatiyeh,  on  the  Euphrates. 

2  This  district  of  Kappadokia  is  called  "  Khani  the  Great,"  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from   another  Khani  near  Babylon,  whose  king  Tukulti-mer, 
son  of  Ilu-saba,  dedicated  a  bronze  ram's  head,  now  in  the  British  Museum, 
to  the  temple  of  the  Sun-god  at  Sippara. 


46.  I  made  (my  way).     To  the  bank  of  the  waters 

47.  of  the  land  of  the  ARMAYANS,1  the  enemies  of  ASUR 

my  lord, 

48.  I  marched.     From  opposite  to  the  land  of  'SuKHi,2 

49.  as  far  as  the  city  of  GARGAMis,3  of  the  land  of  the 

HITTITES  (Khatti\ 

50.  in  one  day  I  plundered. 

51.  Their  soldiers  I  slew.     Their  spoil, 

52.  their  goods  and  their  possessions 

53.  to  a  countless  number  I  carried  back. 

54.  The  remains  of  their  armies, 

55.  who  before  the  powerful  (weapons)  of  ASUR  my  lord 

56.  had  fled  and  had  crossed  the  EUPHRATES, 

57.  after  them  in  vessels  of  inflated  (?)  skins  4 

58.  I  crossed  the  EUPHRATES; 

59.  six  of  their  cities  which  (were)  at  the  foot  of  Mount 


60.  I  captured ;  with  fire  I  burned, 

6 1.  I  threw  down  (and)  dug  up.     Their  spoil,  their  goods 

62.  and  their  possessions  to  my  city  of  ASUR 

63.  I  brought.  

64.  Tiglath-pileser,  the  trampler  upon  the  mighty, 

65.  the  slaughterer  of  the  unsubmissive,  who  weakens6 

66.  utterly  the  strong. 

67.  To  conquer  the  land  of  MU'SRI  7  ASUR  the  lord 

1  The  Arameans. 

2  The  Shuhites  of  the  Old  Testament,  who  extended  along  the  western 
banks  of  the  Euphrates  from  the  mouth  of  the  Khabour  to  above  that  of 
the  Belikh.    ' '  Bildad  the  Shuhite"  (Job  ii.  n)  would  be  Bel-Dadda,  Dadda, 
as  we  learn  from  the  cuneiform  inscriptions,  being  a  form  of  Hadad,  the 
Syrian  name  of  the  god  of  heaven. 

3  Carchemish,  the  Hittite  capital  on  the  Euphrates,  between  the  mouth 
of  the  Sajur  and  Birejik,  now  represented  by  the  mounds  of  Jerablus. 

4  Sugase,  borrowed  from  the  Accadian  'su,  "skin/'  and  gavsia  (whence 
the  Semitic  gubsii] . 

5  Now  Tel-Basher. 

6  Musarbibu,  "subduer,"  according  to  M.  Amiaud,  who  regards  the 
word  as  an  example  of  a  parel  conjugation  (Revue  d'Assyriologie,  ii.  i, 
p.  12). 

7  Mu'sri  or  Muzri  lay  to  the  north-east  of  Khorsabad,  in  the  mountain- 
ous district   now  inhabited  by  the  Missouri    Kurds.     The  tribute  of  a 


68.  urged  me,  and  between  the  mountains  of  ELAMUNI 

69.  TALA  and  KHARU'SA  I  made  (my  way). 

70.  I    conquered    the   land    of   MU'SRI    throughout  its 


71.  I  massacred  their  warriors. 

72.  The  cities  I  burned  with  fire,  I  threw  down, 

73.  I  dug  up.     The  armies  of  the  land  of  QUMANI 

74.  to  the  help  of  the  land  of  MU'SRI 

75.  had  gone.     On  a  mountain  with  them 

76.  I  fought.     A  destruction  of  them  I  made. 

77.  To  a  single  city,  ARINI,  at  the  foot  of  mount  AI'SA, 

78.  I  drove  and  shut  them  up.      My  feet 

79.  they  took.     The  city  itself  I  spared. 

80.  Hostages,  tribute  and  offering 

8 1.  I  laid  upon  them. 

82.  In  those  days  all  the  land  of  QUMANI, 

83.  which  had  prepared  to  help  MU'SRI, 

84.  gathered  together  all  those  countries,  and 

85.  to  make  conflict  and  battle 

86.  were  determined.     With  the  violence  of  my  powerful 


87.  with  20,000  of  their  numerous  troops 

88.  on  mount  TALA  I  fought. 

89.  A  destruction  of  them  I  made. 

90.  Their  strong  forces  I  broke  through. 

91.  As  far  as  mount  KHARU'SA,  which  (is)  in  front  of  the 

land  of  MU'SRI, 

92.  I  pursued  their  fugitives.     The  bodies 

93.  of  their  warriors  in  the  ravines  of  the  mountain 

94.  like  a  moon-stone  I  flung  to  the  ground. 

95.  Their  corpses  over  the  valleys  and  the  high  places  of 

the  mountains 

96.  I  spread.     Their  great  fortresses 

97.  I  captured,  with  fire  I  burned, 

rhinoceros,  yak,  elephant,  and  apes,  brought  by  its  inhabitants  to  Shal- 
maneser  II,  must  be  explained  on  the  supposition  that  the  caravan  road 
from  the  east  passed  through  it. 


98.  I   threw  down  (and)  dug  up,   so   that  they  became 

mounds  and  ruins. 

99.  KHUNU'SA  their  fortified  city 

100.  like  the  flood  of  the  deluge  I  overwhelmed. 


1.  With  their  mighty  armies 

2.  in  the  city  and  the  mountains  I  contended  furiously. 

3.  A  destruction  of  them  I  made. 

4.  Their  fighting  men  in  the  midst  of  the  mountains 

5.  like  a  moon-stone  I  flung  down.     Their  heads 

6.  like  (that)  of  a  sheep  I  cut  off. 

7.  Their  corpses  over  the  valleys  and  high  places  of  the 


8.  I  spread.     The  city  itself  I  captured. 

9.  Their  gods  I  carried  away.     Their  goods  (and)  their 


10.  I  brought  out.     The  city  with  fire  I  burned. 

1 1.  Three  of  their  great  fortresses,  which  of  brickwork 

1 2.  were  constructed,  and  the  circuit  of  the  city  itself 
13.1  threw  down  (and)  dug  up ;  to  mounds  and  ruins 

1 4.  I  reduced  (them),  and  salt  (?)  on  the  top  of  them 

15.  I  sowed.     A  plate  of  bronze  I  made; 

1 6.  the  conquest  of  the  lands,  which  through  ASUR  my 

god  (and)  my  lord 

17.  I  had  conquered,  that  the  site  of  this  city  should  not 

(again)  be  taken, 

1 8.  nor  its  wall  be  constructed,  upon  (it) 

1 9.  I  wrote.     A  house  of  brick  on  the  top  of  it 

20.  I  built :  these  plates  of  bronze 

21.  in  the  midst  (of  it)  I  placed. 

22.  In  the  service  of  ASUR  my  lord  my  chariots 

23.  and  soldiers  I  took.     The  city  of  KIPSUNA 

24.  their  royal  city  I  besieged.     The  QUMANIANS 

25.  feared  the  mighty  onset  of  my  battle; 

2  6.  my  feet  they  took ;  their  lives  I  spared. 

27.  Its  great  wall  and  its  gate-posts 


28.  of  bricks  I  ordered  to  be  destroyed,  and 

29.  from  their  foundations  to  their  coping 

30.  they  were  thrown  down  and  turned  into  a  mound ; 

31.  and  300  families  of  evil-doers 

32.  who  (were)  within  it,  who  were  not  submissive  to  ASUR 

my  lord, 

33.  were  removed  (out   of  it).     I  received  them.     Their 


34.  I  took.     Tribute  and  offering 

35.  above  what  was  previously  paid  upon  them 

36.  I  imposed,  and  the  widespread  land  of  QUMANI 

37.  throughout  its  circuit  under  my  feet 

38.  I  subdued. 

39.  In  all,  42  countries  and  their  kings 

40.  from  the  fords  of  the  lower  ZAB 

41.  (and)  the  border  of  the  distant  mountains 

42.  to  the  fords  of  the  EUPHRATES, 

43.  the  land  of  the  HITTITES  (Khatte)  and  the  Upper  Sea 

44.  of  the  setting  sun,1  from  the  beginning  of  my  sovereignty 

45.  until  my  fifth  year  my  hand  has  conquered. 

46.  One  word  in  unison  have  I  made  them  utter. 

47.  Their  hostages  have  I  taken.     Tribute 

48.  and  offering  have  I  imposed  upon  them. 

49.  I  left  the  numerous  roads  of  foreign  peoples 

50.  which  were  not  attached  to  my  empire  : 

51.  where  the  ground  was  favourable  in  my  chariots,  and 

where  it  was  difficult 

52.  on  my  feet,  after  them 

53.  I  marched.     The  feet  of  the  enemy 

54.  I  kept  from  my  land. 

55.  Tiglath-pileser  the  valiant  hero, 

56.  the  holder  of  the  sceptre  unrivalled 

57.  who  completes  the  mission  of  the  supreme  (gods). 

1  That  is,  Lake  Van. 


58.  URAS  and  NERGAL  have  given  their  forceful 

59.  weapons  and  their  supreme  bow 

60.  to  the  hands  of  my  lordship. 

6 1.  Under  the  protection  of  URAS  who  loves  me 

62.  from  young  wild  bulls,  powerful  (and)  large, 

63.  in  the  desert  in  the  land  of  MITANI 

64.  and  in  the  city  of  ARAZIGI/  which  (is)  in  front 

65.  of  the  land  of  the  HITTITES,  with  my  mighty  bow, 

66.  a  lasso  of  iron  and  my  pointed 

67.  spear,  their  lives  I  ended  : 

68.  their  hides  (and)  their  horns 

69.  to  my  city  of  ASUR  I  brought. 

70.  Ten  powerful  male-elephants  2 

71.  in  the  land  of  HARRAN  (Kharrani)  and  (on)  the  bank 

of  the  KHABUR 

72.  I  slew.     Four  elephants  alive 

73.  I  captured.     Their  hides 

74.  (and)  their  teeth  along  with  the  live 

75.  elephants  I  brought  to  my  city  ASUR. 

7  6.  Under  the  protection  of  URAS  who  loves  me 

77.  120  lions,  with  my  stout  heart, 

78.  in  the  conflict  of  my  heroism 
7  9.  on  my  feet  I  slew  ; 

80.  and  800  lions  in  my  chariot 

8 1.  with  javelins  (?)  I  slaughtered. 

82.  All  the  cattle  of  the  field  and  the  birds  of  heaven 

83.  that  fly,  among  my  rarities  3 

84.  I  placed. 

85.  After  that  the  enemies  of  ASUR  throughout  their  terri- 


1  Arazig  is  the  Eragiza  of  Ptolemy,  on  the  Euphrates,  to  the  north  of 
Balis  and  the  south  of  Carchemish.     Mitani  seems  to  be  the  Matenau  of 
the  Egyptians  mentioned  by  Ramses  III  immediately  before  Carchemish. 

2  I  follow  Lotz  in  this  rendering. 

3  Ni'siggi,  borrowed  from  the  Sumerian  nin-sig,  "secret." 

VOL.  I  I 


86.  I  had  conquered,  the  temple  of  ISTAR  of  (the  city) 


87.  my  lady,  the  temple  of  RiMMON,1  (and)  the  temple  of 

the  OLDER  BEL,2 

88.  the  temple  of  the  Divinities,3  the  temples  of  the  gods 

89.  of  my  city  ASUR,  which  were  decayed,  I  built, 

90.  I  completed.     The  entrances  of  their  temples 

91.  I  constructed.     The  great  gods,  my  lords, 

92.  I  introduced  within  ; 

93.  I  rejoiced  the  heart  of  their  great  divinity. 

94.  The  palaces,  the  seat  of  sovereignty 

95.  belonging  to  the  great  fortresses 

96.  on  the  borders  of  my  country,  which  from 

97.  the  time  of  my  fathers  through  long 

98.  years  had  been  deserted  and  ruined  and 

99.  were  destroyed,  I  built  (and)  completed. 

100.  The  castles  of  my  country  that  were  overthrown 

1 01.  I  enclosed.     The  conduits4  throughout  all  the  land 

of  ASSYRIA  • 

1 02.  I  fastened  together  wholly,  and  an  accumulation 

103.  of  grain  in  addition  to  that  (collected)  by  my  fathers  ' 

104.  I  brought  back  (and)  heaped  up. 

105.  Troops  of  horses,  oxen  (and)  asses 


1.  which  in  the  service  of  ASUR  my  lord 

2.  in  the  countries  which  I  had  conquered, 

3.  as  the  acquisition  of  my  hands 

4.  which  I  took,  I  collected  together,  and  troops 

5.  of  goats,  fallow-deer,  wild  sheep, 

6.  (and)  antelopes  which  ASUR  and  URAS 

7.  the  gods  who  love  me  have  given 

8.  for  hunting,  in  the  midst  of  the  lofty 

1  Here  called  Matu,  "  the  god  of  the  tempest." 

2  Bel  of  Nipur,  called  Mul-lil,  ' '  the  lord  of  the  ghost-world,"  by  the  Ac- 
cadians,  and  distinguished  from  Bel  Merodach,  the  younger  Bel  of  Babylon. 

8  This  apparently  means  that  the  images  of  several  deities  were  collected 
together  in  the  temple  of  the  Older  Bel. 
4  Literally  "sewers." 


9.  mountains  I  have  taken  ; 

10.  their  herds  I  enclosed, 

1 1.  their  number  like  that  of  a  flock 

12.  of  sheep  I  counted: 

13.  young  lambs,  the  offspring 

14.  of  their  heart,  according  to  the  desire  of  my  heart, 

15.  along  with  my  pure  sacrifices 

1 6.  annually  I  sacrificed  to  ASUR  my  lord. 

1 7.  The  cedar,  the  likkarin  tree 

1 8.  (and)  the  allakan  tree  from  the  countries 

19.  which  I  had  conquered,  these  trees 

20.  which  among  the  kings 

21.  my  fathers  who  (were)  before  (me)  none 

22.  had  planted,  I  took  and 

23.  in  the  plantations  of  my  country 

24.  I  planted,  and  the  costly  fruit 

25.  of  the  plantation,  which  did  not  exist  in  my  country, 

26.  I  took.     The  plantations  of  ASSYRIA 

27.  I  established. 

28.  Chariots  (and  horses)  bound  to  the  yoke, 

29.  for  the  mightiness  of  my  country,  more  than  before 

30.  I  introduced  (and)  harnessed. 

31.  To  the  land  of  ASUR  (I  added)  land, 

32.  to  its  people  I  added  people. 

33.  The  health  of  my  people  I  improved. 

34.  A  peaceable  habitation 

35.  I  caused  them  to  inhabit. 

36.  Tiglath-pileser,  the  great,  the  supreme, 

37.  whom  ASUR  and  URAS  according  to  the  desire 

38.  of  his  heart  conduct,  so  that 

39.  after  the  enemies  of  ASUR 

40.  he  has  overrun  all  their  territories,  and 

41.  has  utterly  slaughtered  the  overweening. 


42.  The  son  of  Asur-ris-ilim,1  the  powerful  king,  the  con- 


43.  of  hostile  lands,  the  subjugator 

44.  of  all  the  mighty. 

45.  The  grandson  of  Mutaggil-Nu'sku,  whom  ASUR  the 

great  lord 

46.  in  the  conjuration  of  his  steadfast  heart 

47.  had  required,  and  to  the  shepherding 

48.  of  the  land  of  Asur  had  raised  securely. 

49.  The  true  son  of  Asur-da'an, 

50.  the  upraiser  of  the  illustrious  sceptre,  who  ruled 

51.  the  people  of  BEL,2  who  the  work  of  his  hands 

52.  and  the  gift  of  his  sacrifice 

53.  commended  to  the  great  gods,  so  that 

54.  he  arrived  at  gray  hairs  and  old  age. 

55.  The  descendant  of  Uras-pileser, 

56.  the  guardian  (?)  king,  the  favourite  of  ASUR, 

57.  whose  might3  like  a  sling 

58.  was  spread  over  his  country,  and 

5  9.  the  armies  of  ASUR  he  shepherded  faithfully. 

60.  In  those  days  the  temple  of  ANU  and  RIMMON 

6 1.  the  great  gods,  my  lords, 

1  Sir  H.  Rawlinson  has  suggested  that  Asur-ris-ilim  is  the  Chushan-rish- 
athaim  of  Judges  iii.    8,    a  name  which  certainly  seems  to  be  corrupt. 
Chushan-rish-athaim  is  called  king  of  Aram  Naharaim  or  ' '  Aram  of  the  two 
rivers, "  which  represents  Mesopotamia  in  the  Old  Testament,  though  the 
Naharaina  of  the  Egyptian  monuments  was  the  region  about  the  Orontes, 
while  the  Assyrian  Nahri  or  Nairi  was  primarily  the  district  to  the  north- 
west of  Lake  Van,  and  afterwards  the  country  to  the  south  of  it.     Assur- 
ris-ilim  claims  to  have  ' '  subdued  Lullumi  and  all  Quti  (or  Kurdistan)  with 
the  entrance  to  its  mountain-ranges"  (W.  A.  I.,  iii.  3,  18)  ;  but  these  dis- 
tricts lay  to  the  east  of  Assyria,  and  no  allusion  is  made  to  any  campaign 
in  the  west. 

2  That  is,  the  Babylonians. 

3  Literally  "fulness"  (nubalu,  akin  to  nabli,  in  the  Cuthean  Legend  of 
the  Creation,  iv.  20). 


62.  which  in  former  times  Samas-Rimmon,  the  high-priest1 

of  ASUR, 

63.  the  son  of  Isme-Dagon,  the  high-priest  also  of  ASUR, 

64.  built,  for  641  years 

65.  went  on  decaying, — 

66.  Asur-da'an  the  king  of  ASUR, 

67.  the  son  of  Uras-pileser,  the  king  also  of  ASUR, 

68.  pulled  down  this  temple  (but)  did  not  rebuild  (it) ; 

69.  for  60  years  its  foundations 

70.  were  not  laid. 

71.  At  the  beginning  of  my  reign,  ANU 

72.  and  RIMMON  the  great  gods,  my  lords, 

73.  who  love  my  priesthood  (sartguti), 

74.  commanded  the  rebuilding 

75.  of  their  habitation.     I  made  bricks; 

76.  I  purified  its  site  ; 

77.  I  undertook  its  reconstruction;2  its  foundations 

78.  I  laid  upon  the  mass  of  a  huge  mound. 

79.  This  place  throughout  its  circuit 

80.  I  piled  up  with  bricks  like  a  double  fold  (?). 

8 1.  Fifty  tibki*  below 

82.  I  sunk  (it);  upon  it 

83.  the  foundations  of  the  temple  of  ANU  and  RIMMON 

84.  I  laid  with  /&/&-stone.4 

85.  From  its  foundations  to  its  roof 

86.  I  built  (the  temple) ;   greater  than  (it  was)  before   I 

reared  (it). 

87.  Two  great  towers 

88.  which  for  the  glorification  of  their  great  divinities 

89.  were  adapted,  I  constructed. 

1  Pate  si. 

2  Literally  "  I  took  its  strength"  (read  dannat-su,  not  libnat-su}. 

3  The  tibku  was  a  measure  of  length  which  is  explained  in  the  Talmud 
as  the  longer  cubit  of  7  palms  mentioned  in  2  Chr.  iii.  3. 

4  Prof.  D.  H.  Miiller  believes  the  /z^/fo-stone  to  have  been  brought  from 
Armenia,     and    to    have    derived    its    name    from  the  Vannic  pulu-  si, 
"engraved."     It  is  also  called  /z'/z'-stone.     It  was  a  species   of  white 


90.  The  illustrious  temple,  a  building  with  cornices,1 

91.  the  seat  of  their  rejoicing, 

92.  the  habitation  of  their  pleasure, 

93.  which  has  been  beautified  like  the  star(s)  of  heaven, 

94.  and  by  the  art  of  the  workmen 

95.  has  been  richly  carved, 

96.  I  have  worked  at,  have  toiled  over,  have  built 

97.  (and)  have  completed.     Its  interior 

98.  I  compacted  to'gether  like  the  heart  of  heaven  ; 

99.  its  walls  like  the  resplendence 
100.  of  the  rising  of  the  stars  I  adorned. 
i or.  I  strengthened  its  buttresses, 

102.  and  its  towers  to  heaven 

103.  I  lifted;  and  its  roof 

104.  I  fastened  together  with  brickwork. 

105.  The  divining  rod,2 

1 06.  the  oracle  of  their  great 

107.  divinities  within  it 

1 08.  I  placed. 

109.  ANU  and  RIMMON,  the  great  gods 
no.  I  introduced  within  (it); 

in.  on  their  thrones  supreme 

112.  I  seated  them  ; 

113.  and  the  heart  of  their  great  divinities 

114.  I  gladdened. 


1.  BIT-KHAMRI  (the  temple)  of  RIMMON, 

2.  which  Samas-Rimmon  the  high-priest  of  ASSUR  3 

1  Qusuda.     In  W.  A.  I.,  v.  28,  4,  gasdu  is  the  synonym  of  allum,  the 
Aramaic  U&. 

2  Elalld.     It  seems  to  have  been  a  stem  of  papyrus  covered  with 

3  The  Pate' sis,  or  high-priests  of  Assur,  preceded  the  kings  of  Assyria, 
of  whom  the  first  is  stated  to  have  been  Bel-kapkapu.    As  Samas-Rimmon, 
the  high-priest,  flourished  701  years  before  Tiglath-Pileser,  his  date  would 
be  about  B.C.  1830.      In  Babylonia  the  high-priests  were  subject  to  a  suze- 
rain king  ;  it  is  therefore  probable  that  the  high-priests  of  Assur  also  ad- 
mitted the  supremacy  of  a  supreme  monarch  who  may  have   ruled   in 
Babylonia.      Bricks  have  been  found  on  the  site  of  Ur  in  Babylonia  bear- 
ing the  name  of  Isme-Dagon,  "king  of  Sumer  and  Accad,"  but  he  must 


the  son  of  Isme-Dagon  the  high-priest  of  ASUR 

had  built,  had  fallen  into  decay  and  was  ruined. 

I  purified  its  site ;  from  its  foundations 

to  its  roof  with  brick 

I  bonded  (it)  together.     More  than  before 

I  adorned,  I  established  (it). 

In  its  midst  pure  victims 

to  RIMMON  my  lord  I  sacrificed. 

11.  In  those  days  the  ivory  (?)  stone,  the  khalta  stone 

12.  and  the  mountain  stone  from  the  mountains 

13.  of  NAiRi,1  which  through  ASUR  my  lord 

14.  I  had  conquered,  I  carried  away; 

15.  in  BIT-KHAMRI,  (the  temple)  of  RIMMON  my  lord 

1 6.  for  days  to  come  I  set  (them). 

17.  As  I  the  illustrious  temple,  the  building  supreme, 

1 8.  for  the  habitation,  of  ANU  and  RIMMON  the  great  gods 

19.  my  lords,  have  laboured  at  and  have  not  desisted 

20.  (and)  have  not  rested  from  the  work,2 

21.  (but)  have  quickly  completed  (it),  and 

22.  have  gladdened  the  heart  of  their  great 

23.  divinity,  (so)  may  ANU  and  RIMMON 

24.  turn  (to  me)  for  ever  and 

25.  love  the  lifting  up  of  my  hands  ; 

26.  may  they  hearken  to  the  earnestness  of  my  prayer ; 

27.  abundant  rains,  years 

28.  of  fertility  and  fatness  to  my  reign 

29.  may  they  give;  in  battle  and  conflict 

30.  may  they  conduct  (me)  in  safety ; 

31.  all  the  countries  of  my  enemies,  countries 

32.  that  are  powerful,  and  kings  that  are  hostile  to  me, 

33.  may  they  subdue  beneath  my  feet; 

have  lived  at  a  much  earlier  period  than  Samas-Rimmon,  whose  Babylonian 
contemporary  was  Gul-kisar. 

1  Another  mode  of  spelling  Nahri. 

2  Literally  "  not  laid  down  my  side  at  the  work." 


34.  to  myself  and  my  supremacy 

35.  may  they  approach  in  goodness,  and 

36.  my  priesthood  in  the  presence  of  ASUR  and  their  great 

37.  divinities  unto  future  days 

38.  may  they  establish  like  a  mountain  for  ever. 

39.  The  power  of  my  heroism,  the  might 

40.  of  my  battle,  the  subjection  of  enemies, 

41.  even  the  foes  of  ASUR,  whom  ANU  and  RIMMON 

42.  have  given  for  a  spoil, 

43.  on  my  monuments  and  my  cylinder 

44.  have  I  described ;  in  the  temple  of  ANU  and  RIMMON 

45.  the  great  gods  my  lords 

46.  I  have  deposited  (them)  for  days  to  come ; 

47.  the  monumental-stones  of  Samas-Rimmon,  - 

48.  my  (fore)father  I  have  anointed  with  oil;1  a  victim 

49.  I  have  sacrificed  :  to  their  place  I  have  restored  (them). 

50.  In  future  days,  in  the  days  to  come, 

51.  at  any  time  whatever,  may  a  future  prince, 

5  2.  when  the  temple  of  ANU  and  RIMMON  the  great 

53.  gods,  my  lords,  and  these  towers 

54.  shall  grow  old  and 

55.  shall  decay,  renew  their  ruins  ; 

56.  my  monumental-stones  and  my  cylinder 

5  7.  may  he  anoint  with  oil ;  a  victim  may  he  sacrifice ; 

58.  to  their  place  may  he  restore  (them), 

59.  and  may  he  write  his  name  along  with  mine. 

60.  Like  myself  may  ANU  and  RIMMON 

6 1.  the  great  gods  in  goodness  of  heart 

62.  and  the  acquisition  of  power  kindly  conduct  him  ! 

63.  Whoever  my  monumental-stones  and  my  cylinder 

64.  shall  shatter,  shall  sweep  away, 

]  Thereby  turning  them  into  Beth-els  or  consecrated  stones.     Cf.  Gen. 
xxviii.  18. 


65.  shall  throw  into  the  water, 

66.  shall  burn  with  fire, 

67.  shall  conceal  in  the  dust ;  in  the  holy  house  of  the  god 

68.  (in)  a  place  invisible   shall  store  (them)  up  in   frag- 

ments ; 

69.  shall  obliterate  the  name  that  is  written,  and 

70.  shall  write  his  own  name,  and  something 

71.  evil  shall  devise,  and 

72.  against  my  monumental-stones 

73.  shall  work  injury ; 

74.  may  ANU  and  RIMMON  the  great  gods,  my  lords, 

75.  fiercely  regard  him  and 

76.  may  they  curse  him  with  a  withering  curse. 

77.  May  they  overthrow  his  kingdom ; 

78.  may  they  remove  the  foundation  of  the  throne  of  his 

majesty  \ 

may  they  annihilate  the  fruit  of  his  lordship ; 
may  they  break  his  weapons  ; 
may  they  cause  destruction  to  his  army ; 
in  the  presence  of  his  enemies  in  chains 
may  they  seat  him.     May  RIMMON  with  lightning 
destructive  smite  his  land ; 
want,  hunger,  famine 

(and)  corpses  may  he  lay  upon  his  country ; 
may  he  not  bid  him  live  for  one  day ; 
may  he  root  out  his  name  (and)  his  seed  in  the  land  ! 

89.  (Written)  in  the  month  Kuzallu,1  the  29th  day,  in  the 


90.  of  Ina-ili-ya-allak  the  chief  of  the  body-guard.2 

1  "  Of  sheep-breeding,"  a  name  of  Sivan  or  May,  according  to  W.  A.  I. , 

v.  43.  14. 

2  Literally   "the  mighty  men,"  like  the  Gibborim  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment ;  cf.  2  Sam.  xxiii.  8.     Assyrian  chronology  was  reckoned  according 
to  the  eponyms,  officers  who  gave  their  name  to  each  year  of  the  king's 
reign.       As  the  inscription  of  Rimmon-nirari  I,   who  preceded  Tiglath- 
Pileser  I  by  about  two  hundred  years,  is  dated  in  the  eponymy  of  Shal- 
man-garradu  ("the   god  Solomon  is  a  hero"),  accurate  chronology  in 
Assyria  went  back  to  an  early  period. 



FRAGMENTS  of  a  long  epic  poem,  describing  the 
creation  of  the  world  in  a  series  of  tablets  or  books, 
were  discovered  by  Mr.  George  Smith  among  the 
cuneiform  treasures  of  the  British  Museum  which 
had  come  from  the  royal  library  of  Kouyunjik  or 
Nineveh.  The  tablets  appear  to  be  seven  in  num- 
ber, and  since  the  creation  was  described  as  consist- 
ing of  a  series  of  successive  acts,  it  presented  a 
curious  similarity  to  the  account  of  the  creation 
recorded  in  the  first  chapter  of  Genesis. 

The  epic  embodied  certain  of  the  ideas  and  be- 
liefs current  in  Assyria  and  Babylonia  regarding  the 
creation  of  the  universe.  That  there  were  other 
ideas  and  legends  is  evident  from  the  existence  of 
another  story  of  the  creation,  which  came  originally 
from  the  library  of  Cutha,  and  differed  entirely  from 
that  of  the  epic.  The  epic,  as  I  have  pointed  out 
in  my  Lectures  on  the  Religion  of  the  Ancient  Baby- 
lonians (p.  385),  clearly  belongs  to  a  late  date.  The 
gods  of  the  popular  religion  not  only  have  their 


places  in  the  universe  fixed,  but  even  the  period  and 
manner  of  their  origin  is  described.  The  element- 
ary spirits  of  the  old  Accadian  faith  have  passed 
into  the  great  gods  of  Semitic  belief,  and  been  finally 
resolved  into  mere  symbolical  representatives  of  the 
primordial  elements  of  the  world.  Under  a  thin 
disguise  of  theological  nomenclature,  the  Babylonian 
theory  of  the  universe  has  become  a  philosophic 
materialism.  The  gods  themselves  come  and  go 
like  mortal  men  ;  they  are  the  offspring  of  the  ever- 
lasting elements  of  the  heaven  and  earth,  and  of 
that  watery  abyss  out  of  which  mythology  had 
created  a  demon  of  evil,  but  which  the  philosopher 
knew  to  be  the  mother  and  source  of  all  things. 
The  Tiamat  of  the  first  tablet  of  the  epic  is  a  very 
different  being  from  the  Tiamat  of  the  fourth. 

I  much  doubt,  therefore,  whether  the  epic  in  its 
present  form  is  older  than  the  time  of  Assur-bani- 
pal.  It  sums  up  under  a  poetical  garb  the  teachings 
of  mythology  and  philosophy  about  the  origin  of 
things.  The  Babylonians  had  always  believed  that 
the  world  had  been  created  out  of  water,  and  that 
the  present  creation  had  been  preceded  by  an  earlier 
creation,  an  imperfect  and  chaotic  prototype  of  that 
which  followed.  This  earlier  creation,  in  fact,  had 
been  the  work  of  chaos,  and  the  destruction  of  it  by 
the  younger  gods  of  light  and  order  ushered  in  the 
new  creation  of  the  visible  world.  Light  and  dark- 
ness, chaos  and  order,  are  ever  struggling  one  against 
the  other ;  but  the  victory  of  light  and  order  was 


assured  ever  since  Merodach,  the  Sun-god,  overthrew 
the  dragon  Tiamat,  "  the  wicked  serpent "  as  she  is 
also  called,  who  represented  chaos  and  anarchy. 
Tiamat  is  the  Assyrian  equivalent  of  the  Hebrew 
tehom,  "the  deep,"  upon  whose  face,  according  to 
Gen.  i.  2,  darkness  had  rested  before  the  universe 
was  made. 

The  cosmological  system  of  the  first  tablet  found 
its  way  into  the  pages  of  a  Greek  writer,  Damaskios, 
who  lived  in  the  sixth  century  of  our  era  (De  Prim. 
Princip.  125,  p.  384,  ed.  Kopp).  "The  Babylon- 
ians," he  tells  us,  "  like  the  rest  of  the  barbarians, 
pass  over  in  silence  the  one  principle  of  the  universe, 
and  they  constitute  two,  Tavthe  and  Apason,  mak- 
ing Apason  the  husband  of  Tavthe,  and  denominat- 
ing her  *  the  mother  of  the  gods.'  And  from  these 
proceeds  an  only-begotten  son  Mumis,  which,  I  con- 
ceive, is  no  other  than  the  intelligible  world  pro- 
ceeding from  the  two  principles.  From  them  also 
another  progeny  is  derived,  Lakhe  and  Lakhos  ;  and 
again  a  third,  Kissare  and  Assoros,  from  which  last 
three  others  proceed,  Anos  and  Illinos  and  Aos. 
And  of  Aos  and  Davke  is  born  a  son  called  Belos, 
who,  they  say,  is  the  fabricator  of  the  world." 

Tavthe  is  Tiamat  or  Tiavat,  Apason  is  a/su, 
"  the  abyss,"  and  Mumis  is  Mummu,  who,  however, 
is  identified  with  Tiamat  in  the  epic,  Kissare  and 
Assoros  being  Ki-sar  and  An-sar,  "the  lower"  and 
"  the  upper  firmament."  Lakhe  and  Lakhos,  that  is 
to  say,  Lakhmu  or  Lakhvu  and  Lakhamu  or  La- 


khavu,  must  be  read  instead  of  the  Dakhe  and  Dakhos 
of  the  manuscripts.  Belos  is  Bel-Merodach,  "  the 
younger  Bel,"  in  contradistinction  to  "  the  older 
Bel "  of  the  city  of  Nipur,  one  of  whose  Accadian 
names  was  Illil,  the  Illinos  of  Damaskios.  It  is 
probable  that  the  name  of  Lakhamu  was  carried  to 
Canaan  along  with  those  of  other  Babylonian  gods 
such  as  Rimmon,  Nebo,  and  Sin.  At  all  events 
Lakhmi  seems  to  be  the  name  of  a  Philistine  in 
i  Chron.  xx.  5,  and  Beth-lehem  is  best  explained  as 
"the  house  of  Lekhem,"  like  Beth-Dagon,  "the 
house  of  Dagon,"  or  Beth-Anoth,  "the  house  of 

Only  the  commencement  of  the  first  tablet  (num- 
bered K  5419)  has  been  recovered,  but  the  tablet 
was  of  no  great  length,  as  the  larger  part  of  the 
reverse  appears  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  colo- 
phon. It  has  been  published  by  Mr.  George  Smith 
in  the  Transactions  of  the  Society  of  Biblical  A  rchce- 
ology,  iv.  2  (1876),  and  by  Professor  Fr.  Delitzsch 
in  his  Assyrische  Lesestiicke  (ist  edition,  1878),  and 
has  been  translated  by  Mr.  Smith  in  his  Chaldean 
Genesis.  Translations  of  it  by  Dr.  Oppert,  Dr. 
Schrader,  and  myself  have  subsequently  appeared. 
A  small  fragment  of  the  second  tablet  has  been 
found  by  Professor  Delitzsch,  containing  the  colo- 
phon, "  the  second  tablet  (of  the  series  beginning) 
'  when  above.' '  The  third  tablet  was  partly  repre- 
sented by  the  fragments  numbered  K  3473,  Rm. 
615.  Line?  17-42  of  the  obverse  have  been 


published  by  Professor  Delitzsch  in  his  AssyriscJies 
Wb'rterbuch,  i.  p.  100,  and  portions  of  the  text  are 
translated  in  Smith's  Chaldean  Genesis.  A  fragment 
of  the  fourth  tablet  from  the  Library  of  Kouyunjik, 
numbered  K  3437,  has  been  published  by  George 
Smith  (Trans.  Soc.  Bib.  Arch.,  iv.  2),  and  Delitzsch 
(Ass.  Leses.,  pp.  82,  83),  and  translated  by  Smith, 
Oppert,  Leiiormant,  and  others  ;  but  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  text  has  now  been  recovered  from  a  tablet 
brought  from  Babylonia  by  Mr.  Rassam  (numbered 
82-9-18,  3737),  and  published  by  Mr.  Budge  in  the 
Proceedings  of  tJie  Society  of  Biblical  Arc/oology  for 
6th  December  1887.  A  translation  of  it  has  been 
given  by  myself  in  my  Lectures  on  the  Religion  of 
tJie  Ancient  Babylonians,  pp.  379  scq.  (1887),  which  I 
can  now  improve  in  several  particulars.  The  fifth 
tablet  (K  3567)  was  published  by  Smith  (Trans.  Soc. 
Bib.  ArcJi.,  iv.  2),  and  Delitzsch  (Ass.  Leses.,  p.  78), 
and  translated  by  Smith,  Oppert,  and  Lenormant. 
About  one-third  of  it  is  lost.  Of  the  seventh  (?) 
tablet  only  three  small  fragments  remain  (345,  248, 
147),  published  by  Delitzsch  (Ass.  Leses.,  p.  79), 
and  translated  by  Smith  in  his  Chaldean  Genesis. 
To  the  third  tablet  probably  belongs  an  unpublished 
fragment  (K  3449),  describing  the  preparation  of 
the  bow  of  Merodach  ;  an  attempt  at  its  translation 
will  be  found  in  Smith's  Chaldean  Genesis. 

No  fragments  of  the  sixth  tablet  have  as  yet  been 
noticed.  According  to  Professor  Delitzsch  the  frag- 
ment belonging  to  the  second  tablet  concludes  with 


the  prayer  of  Merodach  to  capture  Tiamat  and 
avenge  the  gods,  after  Anu  and  Ea  had  already 
declined  to  undertake  the  (Assyrzsc/ies  WorterbucJi, 
i.  p.  65).  The  first  line  of  the  next  tablet  is  stated 
to  be,  "  An-sar  (the  upper  firmament)  opened  his 
mouth."  From  this  point  onwards  the  ends  of  the 
lines  are  preserved  on  the  fragment  numbered  K 
3473,  and  from  line  9  onwards  the  beginnings  of 
the  lines  on  fragment  K  3938.  They  run  as 
follows  : — 

1.  "An-sar  opened  his  mouth,  and 

2.  unto  him  (Merodach)  he  speaks  the  word  : 

3.  ('O  lord,  I)  am  yearning1  in  my  liver; 

4.  (against  Tiamat)  let  me  send  thee,  even  thee  : 

5.  (with  the  snare?)  thou   shalt  ensnare  (Tiamat),  thou 

shalt  be  exalted  (?) 

6 thy  ...  to  thy  presence. 

7 their  divine  porter. 

8 let  them  dwell  in  feasting.' 

9.  The  god  went  (saying),  let  them  make  the  wine. 

10.  Humbly  the  god  has  .  .  .  them;  let  them  hear  the 


11.  He  has  established  and  has  fixed  their  .  .   .,  (saying) 

thus  : 

12.  'Do  thou  ....  thy  (word)  repeat  to  them. 

13.  An-sar,  moreover,   .  .  .  has  urged  me  on; 

1 4.  the  law  of  (his)  heart  has  made  me,  even  me,  to  ponder 

15.  thus:  'Tiamat  .  .  .  has  seen  us; 

1 6.  she  has  convened  (sitkunaf]  an  assembly,  and  is  violently 

enraged.' " 

Here  follows  the  passage   translated  further  on. 
The  last  two  lines  of  the  tablet,  as  we  learn  from  a 

1  KLummulu,  from  khamalu,  "  to  be  pitiful." 


small  fragment,  concluded  with  the  words,  "  (Mero- 
dach)  ascended  (from)  their  midst  (and  the  great 
gods)  determined  (for  him  his)  destiny." 

It  will  be  seen  that  a  good  deal  of  the  poem 
consists  of  the  words  put  into  the  mouth  of  the  god 
Merodach,  derived  possibly  from  older  lays.  The 
first  tablet  or  book,  however,  expresses  the  cosmo- 
logical  doctrines  of  the  author's  own  day.  It  opens 
before  the  beginning  of  time,  the  expression  "at  that 
time"  answering  to  the  expression  "in  the  beginning" 
of  Genesis.  The  heavens  and  earth  had  not  yet 
been  created,  and  since  the  name  was  supposed  to 
be  the  same  as  the  thing  named,  their  names  had 
not  as  yet  been  pronounced.  A  watery  chaos  alone 
existed,  Mummu  Tiamat,  "  the  chaos  of  the  deep." 
Out  of  the  bosom  of  this  chaos  proceeded  the  gods 
as  well  as  the  created  world.  First  came  the  prim- 
aeval divinities  Lakhmu  and  Lakhamu,  words  of 
unknown  meaning,  and  then  An-sar  and  Ki-sar,  "  the 
upper"  and  "  lower  firmament."  Last  of  all  were 
born  the  three  supreme  gods  of  the  Babylonian  faith, 
Anu  the  sky-god,  Bel  or  Illil  the  lord  of  the  ghost- 
world,  and  Ea  the  god  of  the  river  and  sea. 

But  before  the  younger  gods  could  find  a  suitable 
habitation  for  themselves  and  their  creation  it  was 
necessary  to  destroy  "the  dragon"  of  chaos  with  all 
her  monstrous  offspring.  The  task  was  undertaken 
by  the  Babylonian  sun-god  Merodach,  the  son  of  Ea, 
An-sar  promising  him  victory,  and  the  other  gods 
providing  for  him  his  arms.  The  second  tablet  was 


occupied  with  an  account  of  the  preparations  made 
to  ensure  the  victory  of  light  over  darkness  and 
order  over  anarchy. 

The  third  tablet  described  the  success  of  the  god 
of  light  over  the  allies  of  Tiamat.  Light  was  intro- 
duced into  the  world,  and  it  only  remained  to 
destroy  Tiamat  herself.  The  combat  is  described 
in  the  fourth  tablet,  which  takes  the  form  of  a  poem 
in  honour  of  Merodach,  and  is  probably  an  earlier 
poem  incorporated  into  his  text  by  the  author  of  the 
epic.  Tiamat  was  slain  and  her  allies  put  in  bond- 
age, while  the  books  of  destiny  which  had  hitherto 
been  possessed  by  the  older  race  of  gods  were  now 
transferred  to  the  younger  deities  of  the  new  world. 
The  visible  heaven  was  formed  out  of  the  skin  of 
Tiamat,  and  became  the  outward  symbol  of  An-sar 
and  the  habitation  of  Anu,  Bel,  and  Ea,  while  the 
chaotic  waters  of  the  dragon  became  the  law-bound 
sea  ruled  over  by  Ea. 

The  heavens  having  been  thus  made,  the  fifth 
tablet  tells  us  how  they  were  furnished  with  mansions 
for  the  sun  and  moon  and  stars,  and  how  the 
heavenly  bodies  were  bound  down  by  fixed  laws 
that  they  might  regulate  the  calendar  and  determine 
the  year.  The  sixth  tablet  probably  described  the 
creation  of  the  earth,  as  well  as  of  vegetables,  birds, 
and  fish.  In  the  seventh  tablet  the  creation  of 
animals  and  reptiles  was  narrated,  and  doubtless  also 
that  of  mankind. 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  that  in  its  main  outlines 

VOL  I.  K 


the  Assyrian  epic  of  the  creation  bears  a  striking 
resemblance  to  the  account  of  it  given  in  the  first 
chapter  of  Genesis.  In  each  case  the  history  of  the 
creation  is  divided  into  seven  successive  acts  ;  in 
each  case  the  present  world  has  been  preceded  by  a 
watery  chaos.  In  fact  the  self-same  word  is  used  of 
this  chaos  in  both  the  Biblical  and  Assyrian  accounts 
— tehdm,  Tiamat — the  only  difference  being  that  in 
the  Assyrian  story  "  the  deep  "  has  become  a  mytho- 
logical personage,  the  mother  of  a  chaotic  brood. 
The  order  of  the  creation,  moreover,  agrees  in  the 
two  accounts  ;  first  the  light,  then  the  creation  of 
the  firmament  of  heaven,  subsequently  the  appoint- 
ment of  the  celestial  bodies  "  for  signs  and  for 
seasons  and  for  days  and  years,"  and  next,  the 
creation  of  beasts  and  "creeping  things."  But  the 
two  accounts  also  differ  in  some  important  par- 
ticulars. In  the  Assyrian  epic  the  earth  seems  not 
to  have  been  made  until  after  the  appointment  of 
the  heavenly  bodies,  instead  of  before  it  as  in 
Genesis,  and  the  seventh  day  is  a  day  of  work 
instead  of  rest,  while  there  is  nothing  corresponding 
to  the  statement  of  Genesis  that  "  the  Spirit  of  God 
moved  upon  the  face  of  the  waters."  But  the  most 
important  difference  consists  in  the  interpolation  of 
the  struggle  between  Merodach  and  the  powers  of 
evil,  as  a  consequence  of  which  light  was  introduced 
into  the  universe  and  the  firmament  of  the  heavens 
was  formed. 

It  has  long  since  been  noted  that  the  conception 


of  this  struggle  stands  in  curious  parallelism  to  the 
verses  of  the  Apocalypse  (Rev.  !xii.  7-9)  :  "  And 
there  was  war  in  heaven  :  Michael  and  his  angels 
fought  against  the  dragon  ;  and  the  dragon  fought 
and  his  angels,  and  prevailed  not ;  neither  was  their 
place  found  any  more  in  heaven.  And  the  great 
dragon  was  cast  out,  that  old  serpent,  called  the 
Devil,  and  Satan,  which  deceiveth  the  whole  world." 
We  are  also  reminded  of  the  words  of  Isaiah  xxiv. 
21,  22  :  "The  Lord  shall  visit  the  host  of  the  high 
ones  that  are  on  high,  and  the  kings  of  the  earth 
upon  the  earth.  And  they  shall  be  gathered  to- 
gether, as  prisoners  are  gathered  in  the  pit,  and 
shall  be  shut  up  in  prison."  It  may  be  added  that 
an  Assyrian  bas-relief  now  in  the  British  Museum 
represents  Tiamat  with  horns  and  claws,  tail  and 

There  is  no  need  of  drawing  attention  to  the  pro- 
found difference  of  spiritual  conception  that  exists 
between  the  Assyrian  epic  and  the  first  chapter  of 
Genesis.  The  one  is  mythological  and  polytheistic, 
with  an  introduction  savouring  of  the  later  material- 
ism of  the  schools  ;  the  other  is  sternly  monotheistic. 
Between  Bel-Merodach  and  the  Hebrew  God  there 
is  an  impassable  gulf. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  the  last  lines  of  the  epic  in 
which  the  creation  of  man  would  have  been  recorded 
have  not  yet  been  recovered.  A  passage  in  one  of 
the  early  magical  texts  of  Babylonia,  however,  goes 
to  show  that  the  Babylonians  believed  that  the 


woman  was  produced  from  the  man,  conformably 
to  the  statement  in  Gen.  ii.  22,  23.  We  there  read 
of  the  seven  evil  spirits  (W.  A.  I.,  iv.  i.  i.  36,  37) 
that  "  the  woman  from  the  man  do  they  bring 




1.  At  that  time  the  heaven  above  had  not  yet  announced, 

2.  or  the  earth  beneath  recorded,  a  name; 

3.  the  unopened1  deep  was  their  generator, 

4.  MUMMU-TIAMAT  (the  chaos  of  the  sea)  was  the  mother 

of  them  all. 

5.  Their  waters  were  embosomed  as  one,2  and 

6.  the  corn-field3  was  unharvested,  the  pasture  was  un- 


7.  At  that  time  the  gods  had  not  appeared,  any  of  them ; 

8.  by  no  name  were  they  recorded,  no  destiny  (had  they 


9.  Then  the  (great)  gods  were  created, 

10.   LAKHMU  and  LAKHAMU  issued  forth  (the  first), 
n.  until  they  grew  up  (when) 

12.  AN-SAR  and  KI-SAR  were  created. 

13.  Long  were  the  days,  extended  (was  the  time,  until) 

14.  the  gods  ANU,  (BEL  and  EA  were  born), 

15.  AN-SAR  and  KI-SAR  (gave  them  birth). 

The  rest  of  the  tablet  is  lost. 
1  Or  "first-born,"  if  we  adopt  Delitzsch's  reading  ristu  instead  of  la 

2  This  is  shown  to  be  the  signification  of  istenis  by  S  1140,  8. 

3  Gipara ;  seeW.  A.  I.,  V.  i.  48-50.      Nirba  kdn  yusakhnapu  giparu 
'sippati  summukha  inbu,    "the  corn-god  continuously  caused  the  corn- 
field to  grow,  the  papyri  were  gladdened  with  fruit ; "    S  799,  2.     Ana 
gipari  eltu  erubbi  (Accadian  mi-para-ki  azagga  imma-dan-tutu],   "  to  the 
holy   cornfield   he   went   down."      The   word   has   nothing   to   do   with 
' '  clouds  "  or  "  darkness. ' ' 




17.  "The  gods  have  marched  round  her,1  all  of  them; 

1 8.  up  to  those  whom  thou  hast  created  at  her  side  I 

have  gone." 

1 9.  When  they  were  gathered  (?)  beside  her,  TIAMAT  they 


20.  The  strong  one  (MERODACH),  the  glorious,  who  desists 

not  night  or  day, 

21.  the  exciter  to  battle,  was  disturbed  in  heart. 

22.  Then  they  marshalled  (their)  forces;  they  create  dark- 


23.  "  The  mother  of  KHUBUR,  2  the  creatress  of  them  all, 

24.  I  pursued  with  (my)  weapons  unsurpassed;  (then)  did 

the  great  snake(s)  bite.3 

25.  With  my  teeth  sharpened  unsparingly  did  I  bite. 

26.  With  poisoned  breath  like  blood  their  bodies  I  filled. 

27.  The  raging  vampires4  I  clothed  with  terror. 

28.  I  lifted  up  the  lightning-flash,  on  high  I  launched  (it).5 

29.  Their  messenger  SAR-BABA 

30.  Their  bodies   were   struck,   but    it  pierced    not   their 


31.  I  made  ready  the  dragon,  the  mighty  serpent  and  the 

god  LAKHA(MA), 

1  I '  skhuru-si. 

2  Khubur  is  identified  with  'Su-edin  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Baby- 
lonian plain  in  W.   A.  I.,  ii.   50,  51.      Professor  Delitzsch  suggests  that 
the  expression  ummu  Khubur  may  be  the  origin  of  the  name  Omoroka 
assigned  by  Berdssos  to  Tiamat. 

3  Ittaqiir  from  naqaru.      In   Hebrew  the  verb  is  used  especially  of 
piercing  the  eyes. 

4  The  usumgalli  or    "solitary  monsters"  were  fabulous  beasts  who 
were  supposed  to  devour  the  corpses  of  the  dead,  and  were  therefore  not 
exactly  vampires  which  devoured  the  living,  but  corresponded  rather  with 
one  of  the  creatures  mentioned  in  Is.  xiii.  21,  22;  xxxiv.  14. 

0  Umta^sir}. 


32.  the  great  reptile,  the  deadly  beast  and  the  scorpion- 


33.  the  devouring2  reptiles,  the  fish-man1  and  the  gazelle- 


34.  lifting  up   (my)   weapons    that   spare   not,   fearless   of 


35.  strong  through  the  law  which  (yields?)  not  before  the 


36.  The  eleven-fold  (offspring),  like  him  (their  messenger), 

were  utterly  (overthrown  ?). 

37.  Among  the  gods  her  forces 

38.  I  humbled  the  god  KiNGU4  in  the  sight  (of  his  con- 

sort?), the  queen. 

39.  They  who  went  in  front  before  the  army  (I  smote?), 

40.  lifting  up  (my)  weapons,  a  snare  for  TI(AMAT). 

1  According  to  the  gth  tablet  of  the  Epic  of  Gisdhubar,  ' '  the  scorpion- 
men"  guard  the  gate  between  "the  twin  mountains"  through  which  the 
sun  passes  at  its  rising  and  setting.     The  fish-man  was  Cannes,   after- 
wards identified  with  Ea,  who  brought  wisdom  and  culture  to  Chaldaea 
out  of  the  Persian  Gulf. 

2  Dapruti  (see  W.  A.  I. ,  v.  16,  80)  from  the  same  root  as  diparalu, 
"  a  flame." 

3  The   gazelle -god   was   identified  by   the  later  mythology  of  Baby- 
lonia, sometimes  with  Ea  the  god  of  Eridu,  sometimes  with  Bel  the  god 
of  Nipur  :  see  my  Lectures  on  the  Religion  of  the  Ancient  Babylonians, 
pp.  283  seq. 

4  Kingu  was  the  husband  of  Tiamat. 




1.  So  he  established  for  him  (i.e.  MERODACH)  the  shrine 

of  the  mighty ; 

2.  before  (?)  his  fathers  for  a  kingdom  did  he  found  (it).1 

3.  Yea,  thou  art  glorious  among  the  great  gods  ; 

4.  thy   destiny  is   unrivalled;    thy  gift-day2  is  (that  of) 


5.  O    MERODACH,   thou    art    glorious    among   the   great 


6.  thy   destiny   is    unrivalled;    thy  gift-day   is   (that   of) 


7.  Since  that  day  unchanged  is  thy  command. 

8.  High  and  low  entreat  thy  hand  : 

9.  may   the  word  that   goes   forth   from  thy   mouth   be 

established ;  untroubled  is  thy  gift-day. 

10.  None  among  the  gods  has  surpassed  thy  power 

11.  at  the  time  when  (thy  hand)  founded  the  shrine  of  the 

god  of  the  sky.3 

12.  May  the  place  of  their  gathering  (?)  become  thy  home  ! 

13.  "  O  MERODACH,  thou  art  he  who  avenges  us  ; 

14.  we  give  thee  the  sovereignty,  (we)  the  hosts  of  all  the 

universe  ! 

1 5.  Thou  possessest  (it),  and  in  the  assembly  (of  the  gods) 

mayest  thou. exalt  thy  word  ! 

1 6.  Never  may  thy  weapons  be  broken ; 4  may  thine  ene- 

mies tremble ! 

17.  O  lord,  be  gracious  to  the  soul  of  him  who  putteth 

his  trust  in  thee, 

1  These  are  the  last  two  lines  of  the  Third  Tablet. 
'2  'Sigar.     In  W.  A.  I.,  v.  i,  12,  we  read  that  the  i2th  of  lyyar  was 
the  'sigar  or  "festival  "  of  the  goddess  Gula. 

3  Literally  "  the  covering  of  heaven  "  (nalbas  same}. 

4  Literally  "may  they  open." 


8.  and  destroy1  the  soul  of  the  god  who   has  hold  of 


9.  Then  they  set  in  their  midst  his  saying  unique ; 2 

20.  to  MERODACH  their  first-born  they  spake  : 

21.  "May    thy   destiny,   O    lord,  go    before    the    god   of 

heaven ; 
2  2.  may  he  confirm  (?)  the  destruction  and  creation  of  all 

that  is  said. 
2  3.   Set  thy  mouth  ;  let  it  destroy  his  word  : 

24.  turn,    speak  unto    it,   and    let   him   lift  up  his  word 

(again)."  3 

25.  He  spake  and  with  his  mouth  destroyed  his  word; 

26.  he  turned,  he  spake  unto  it  and  his  word  was  re-created. 

27.  Like  (the  word)  that  issues  from  his  mouth  the  gods 

his  fathers  saw  it : 

28.  they  rejoiced,  they  approached  MERODACH  the  king. 

29.  They  bestowed  upon  him  the  sceptre  (and)  throne  and 

reign  • 

30.  they  gave  him  a  weapon  unsurpassed,  consuming  the 


31.  "  Go  "  (they  said),  "  and  cut  off  the  life  of  TIAMAT  ; 

32.  let  the  winds  carry  her  blood  to  secret  places." 

33.  The  gods  his  fathers  also  hear  the  report  of  EA  : 

34.  "A  path  of  peace  and  obedience  is  the  road  I  have 

caused  (him)  to  take." 

35.  There  was  too  the  bow,  as  his  weapon  he  prepared 


36.  he  made  the  club  swing,  he  fixed  its  seat; 

37.  and  he  lifted  up  the  sacred  weapon4  which  he  bade 

his  right  hand  hold. 

38.  The  bow  and  the  quiver  he  hung  at  his  side ; 

1  Literally  "pour  out." 

2  The  "saying,"  or  "Word,"  is  regarded  as  having  a  real  existence 
which  could  be  created,   destroyed,   and  re-created  by  Merodach.     The 
"  Word"  is  similarly  personified  in  Zech.  ix.  i. 

3  We  have  here  the  same  idea  as  in  the  "burden"  of  the  Hebrew 
prophets,  the  Assyrian  verb  "to  lift  up"  being  nasu,   the  Hebrew  nasd, 
whence  massd,  "a  burden"  or  "oracle." 

4  The  badhdhu  was  the  name  of  the  weapon  sacred  to  Merodach.     From 
the  sculptures  it  vould  appear  to  have  been  a  kind  of  boomerang. 


39.  he  set  the  lightning  before  him ; 

40.  with  a  glance  of  swiftness  he  filled  his  body. 

41.  He  made  also  a  snare  to  enclose  the  dragon  of  the 


42.  He  seized  the   four  winds  that  they  might  not  issue 

forth,  any  one  of  them, 

43.  the  south  wind,  the  north  wind,  the  east  wind  (and) 

the  west  wind. 

44.  His  hand  brought  the  snare  near  the  bow l  of  his  father 


45.  He  created  the  evil  wind,  the  hostile  wind,  the  storm, 

the  tempest, 

46.  the  four  winds,  the   seven  winds,  the  whirlwind,  the 

unending  wind ; 

47.  and  he   caused  the  winds   which  he  had   created  to 

issue  forth,  the  seven  of  them, 

48.  confounding  the  dragon  TIAMAT,  as  they  swept  after 


49.  Then  the  lord  lifted  up  the  deluge,  his  mighty  weapon. 

50.  He  rode  in  the  chariot  of  destiny  that  retreats  without 

a  rival.2 

51.  He  stood  firm  and  hung  the  four  reins  at  its  side. 

52.  (He  held  the  weapon?)  unsparing,  that  overfloods  her 


53 their  teeth  carry  poison. 

54 they  sweep  away  the  learned. 

55 might  and  battle. 

56.  On  the  left  they  open  their 

57 fear 

58.  With   the  lightning-flash   and  ....   he   crowned    his 


59.  He  directed  also  (his  way),  he  made  his  path  descend, 


60.  humbly  he  set  the  ....  before  him. 

6 1.  By  (his)  command  he  kept  back  the  .... 

62.  His  finger  holds  the 

1  Here  we  have  a  curiously  weakened  form,  kisti  instead  of  qasti. 

2  Or  if  we  correct  the  text  and  read  makhri  la  galidta,  "  that  fears  not 
a  rival." 


63.  On  that  day  they  exalted  him,  the  gods  exalted  him, 

64.  the   gods  his   fathers    exalted  him,  the   gods   exalted 


65.  Then  the  lord  approached;  he  catches  TIAMAT  by  her 

waist ; 

66.  she  seeks  the  huge  bulk  (?)  of  KINGU  her  husband, 

67.  she  looks  also  for  his  counsel. 

68.  Then  the  rebellious  one  (TIAMAT)  appointed  1  him  the 

overthrower  of  the  command  of  BEL. 

69.  But  the  gods  his  helpers  who  marched  beside  him 

70.  beheld  (how  MERODACH)  the  first-born  held  their  yoke. 

71.  He  laid  judgment  on  TIAMAT  (but)  she  turned  not  her 


72.  With  her  hostile  lip(s)  she  announced  opposition. 

73.  (Then)  the  gods  (came)  to  the  help  of  the  lord,  sweep- 

ing after  thee  : 

74.  they  gathered  their  (forces)  together  to  where  thou  wast. 

75.  (And)    the    lord    (launched)    the    deluge,    his    mighty 

weapon ; 

76.  (against)  TIAMAT,  whom  he  requited,  he  sent  it  with 

these  words  : 

77.  "(War)  on  high  thou  hast  excited. 

78.  (Strengthen  ?)  thy  heart  and  muster  (thy  troops)  against 

the  god(s). 

79 their  fathers  beside  (thee). 

80 thou  hast  opposed 

8 1 to  (thy)  husband. 

82 lordship^} 

83 thou  seekest. 


1.  (Against)  the  gods  my  fathers  thou  has  directed  thy 


2.  Thou  harnesser  of  thy  companions,  may  thy  weapons 

reach  their  bodie(s). 

3.  Stand  up,  and  I  and  thou  will  fight  together." 

4.  When  TIAMAT  heard  this, 

1  Read  ip-qid. 


5.  she  uttered  her  former  spells,  she  repeated  her  com- 


6.  TIAMAT  also  cried  out  vehemently  with  a  loud  voice. 

7.  From  its  roots  she  strengthened  (her)  seat  completely. 

8.  She  recites  an  incantation,  she  casts  a  spell, 

9.  and  the  gods  of  battle  demand  for  themselves  their 


10.  Then  TIAMAT  attacked  MERODACH  the  chief  prophet 

of  the  gods ; 

11.  in  combat  they  joined;  they  met  in  battle. 

12.  And  the  lord  outspread  his  snare  (and)  enclosed  her. 

13.  He  sent  before  him  the  evil  wind  to  seize  (her)  from 


1 4.  And  TIAMAT  opened  her  mouth  to  swallow  it. 

15.  He  made  the  evil  wind  enter  so  that  she  could  not 

close  her  lips. 

1 6.  The  violence  of  the  winds  tortured  her  stomach,  and 

17.  her  heart  was  prostrated  and  her  mouth  was  twisted. 

1 8.  He  swung  the  club,  he  shattered  her  stomach; 

1 9.  he  cut  out  her  entrails ;  he  overmastered  (her)  heart ; 

20.  he  bound  her  and  ended  her  life. 

21.  He  threw  down  her  corpse;  he  stood  upon  it. 

22.  When  TIAMAT  who  marched  before  (them)  was  con- 


23.  he  dispersed  her  forces,  her  host  was  overthrown, 

24.  and  the  gods  her  allies  who  marched  beside  her 

25.  trembled  (and)  feared  (and)  turned  their  backs. 

26.  They  escaped  and  saved  their  lives. 

2  7.  They  clung  to  one  another  fleeing  helplessly. 

28.  He  followed  them  and  shattered  their  weapons. 

29.  He  cast  his  snare  and  they  are  caught  in  his  net. 

30.  Knowing  (?)  the  regions  they  are  filled  with  grief. 

31.  They  bear  their  sin,  they  are  kept  in  bondage, 

32.  and  the  elevenfold  offspring  are  troubled  through  fear. 

33.  The  spirits  as  they  march  perceived  (?)  the  glory  (of 


34.  His  hand  lays  blindness  (on  their  eyes). 

35.  At  the  same  time  their  opposition   (is  broken)  from 

under  them ; 


36.  and    the    god    KINGU   who    had    (marshalled)    their 


37.  he  bound  him  also  along  with  the  god  of  the  tablets 

(of  destiny  in)  his  right  hand. 

38.  And  he  took  from  him  the  tablets  of  destiny  (that  were) 

upon  him. 

39.  With  the   string  of  the  stylus  he  sealed  (them)  and 

held  the  ...  of  the  tablet. 

40.  From  the  time  when  he  had  bound  (and)  laid  the  yoke 

on  his  foes 

41.  he  led  the  illustrious  enemy  captive  like  an  ox, 

42.  he  established  fully  the  victory  of  AN-SAR1  over  the 


43.  MERODACH  overcame  the  lamentation  of  (EA)  the  lord 

of  the  world. 

44.  Over  the  gods  in  bondage  he  strengthened  his  watch, 


45.  TIAMAT  whom  he  had  bound  he  turned  head  back- 

wards ; 

46.  then  the  lord  trampled  on  the  underpart  of  TIAMAT. 

47.  With  his  club  unbound  he  smote  (her)  skull; 

48.  he  broke  (it)  and  caused  her  blood  to  flow ; 

49.  the  north  wind  bore  (it)  away  to  secret  places.2 

50.  Then  his  father  (EA)  beheld  (and)  rejoiced   at  the 

savour ; 

51.  he  caused  the  spirits  (?)  to  bring  a  peace-offering  to 


1  The  primaeval  god  of  the  Firmament. 

2  The  meaning  of  the  blood  of  Tiamat  is  shown  by  the  two  contradic- 
tory Babylonian  legends  of  the  creation  which  Berossos,   the  Chaldean 
historian,  has  amalgamated  together  : — "Belos  (Merodach)  came  and  cut 
the  woman  (Tiamat)  asunder,  and  of  one  half  of  her  he  formed  the  earth, 
and  of  the  other  half  the  heavens,  and  at  the  same  time  destroyed  the 
animals  within  her  (in  the  abyss).     All  this  was  an  allegorical  description 
of  nature.     For,  the  whole  universe  consisting  of  moisture,  and  animals 
being  continually  generated  therein,  the  deity  above  mentioned  (Belos)  cut 
off  his  own  head  ;  upon  which  the  other  gods  mixed  the  blood,  as  it 
gushed  out,  with  the  earth,  and  from  thence  men  were  formed.     On  this 
account  it  is  that  they  are  rational  and  partake  of  divine  knowledge." 
Similarly,  according  to  Philon  Byblios,  Phoenician  cosmology  declared  that 
the  blood  of  Uranos  or  Baal-samaim,  when  mutilated  by  his  son  Kronos 
near  the  rivers  and  fountains,  flowed  into  them  and  fertilised  the  earth. 


52.  So  the  lord  rested;  his  body  he  feeds. 

53.  He  strengthens  (his)  mind  (?),  he  forms  a  clever  plan, 

54.  and  he  stripped  her  of  (her)  skin  like  a  fish,  according 

to  his  plan  ; 

55.  he  described  her  likeness  and  (with  it)  overshadowed 

the  heavens ; 

56.  he  stretched  out  the  skin,  he  kept  a  watch, 

57.  he  urged  on  her  waters  that  were  not  issuing  forth ; 

58.  he  lit  up  the  sky;  the  sanctuary  (of  heaven)  rejoiced, 


59.  he  presented  himself  before  the  deep,  the  seat  of  EA. 

60.  Then  the  lord  measured  (TIAMAT)  the  offspring  of  the 

deep ; 

6 1.  the  chief  prophet  made  of  her l  image  the  house  of  the 


62.  £-SARRA  which  he  had  created  (to  be)  the  heavens 

63.  the  chief  prophet  caused  ANU,  BEL  and  EA  to  inhabit 

as  their  stronghold. 

64.  [First  line  of  the  next  tablet -\  He  prepared  the  man- 

sions of  the  great  gods. 

65.  [COLOPHON.]     One  hundred  and  forty-six  lines  of  the 

4th  tablet  (of  the  series  beginning:)    "When    on 
high  unproclaimed." 

66.  According  to  the  papyri  of  the  tablet  whose  writing  had 

been  injured. 

67.  Copied  for  NEBO  his  lord  by  Nahid-Merodach,  the  son 

of  the  irrigator,  for  the  preservation  of  his  life 

68.  and  the  life  of  all  his  house.    He  wrote  and  placed  (it) 

in  £-ZiDA.3 

1  "  Its"  in  the  original. 

2  £-Sarra. 

3  £-Zida,  "  the  constituted  house,"  was  the  great  temple  of  Nebo  in 
Borsippa,  now  represented  by  the  Birs-i-Nimrud.     The  copy  of  the  text 
deposited  in  it  by  Nahid-Merodach  was  probably  made  in  the  Persian  age. 




1.  He  prepared  the  twin  mansions  of  the  great  gods. 

2.  He  fixed  the  stars,  even  the  twin-stars,1  to  correspond 

with  them. 

3.  He   ordained   the    year,    appointing  the   signs  of  the 

Zodiac  2  over  (it). 

4.  For  each  of  the  twelve  months  he  fixed  three  stars, 

5.  from  the  day  when  the  year  issues  forth  to  the  close. 

6.  He  founded  the  mansion  of  (the  Sun-god)  the  god  of 

the  ferry-boat,  that  they  might  know  their  bonds, 

7.  that  they  might  not  err,  that  they  might  not  go  astray 

in  any  way. 

8.  He  established  the  mansion  of  BEL  and  EA  along  with 


9.  Moreover  he  opened  the  great  gates  on  either  side, 

10.  he  strengthened  the  bolts  on  the  left  hand  and  on  the 


1 1.  and  in  the  midst  of  it  he  made  a  staircase. 

12.  He  illuminated  the  Moon-god  that  he  might  be  porter 

of  the  night, 

13.  and  ordained  for  him  the  ending  of  the  night  that  the 

day  may  be  known, 

1 4.  (saying :)    "  Month    by    month,    without    break,    keep 

watch  in  thy  disk. 

15.  At  the  beginning  of  the  month  light  up  the  night, 

1 6.  announcing  thy  horns  that  the  heaven  may  know. 

1 7.  On  the  seventh  day,  (filling  thy)  disk 

1 8.  thou  shalt  open  indeed  (its)  narrow  contraction. 

1 9.  At  that  time  the  sun  (will  be)  on  the  horizon  of  heaven 

at  thy  (rising). 
2  o.  Thou  shalt  cut  off  its  ...  : 

1  Lu-masi,  literally  "  the  twin  oxen,"  of  which  seven  were  reckoned. 

2  Mizrata,  which  is  the  same  word  as  the  mazzaroth  of  Job  xxxviii.  32. 


21.  (Thereafter)  towards  the  path  of  the  sun  thou   shalt 


22.  (Then)   the  contracted  size  of  the  sun  shall  indeed 

change  (P)1 

23 seeking  its  path. 

24 descend  and  pronounce  judgment. 

The  rest  of  the  obverse  and  the  first  three  lines  of  the  reverse 
are  destroyed. 


4.  [First  line  of  the  next  tablet .-]  When  the  assembly  of  the 

gods  had  heard  him. 

5.  Fifth  tablet  of  the  (series  beginning)  "When  on  high." 

6.  The  property  of  Assur-bani-pal  the  king  of  hosts,  the 

king  of  Assyria. 

1  The  mutilated  condition  of  the  tablet  makes  the  translation  of  this 
line  extremely  doubtful.  There  may  be  a'  reference  in  it  to  the  star  Al-tar 
or  Dapinu.  » 




1.  At  that  time  the  gods  in  their  assembly  created  (the 


2.  They  made  perfect  the  mighty  (monsters). 

3.  They  caused  the  living  creatures  (of  the  field)  to  come 


4    the  cattle  of  the  field,  (the  wild  beasts)  of  the  field  and 
the  creeping  things  (of  the  field). 

5.  (They  fixed  their  habitations)  for  the  living  creatures 

(of  the  field). 

6.  They  distributed x  (in  their  dwelling-places)  the  cattle 

and  the  creeping  things  of  the  city. 

7.  (They  made  strong)  the  multitude  of  creeping  things, 

all  the  offspring  (of  the  earth). 

8 in  the  assembly  of  my  family. 

9 EA  the  god  of  the  illustrious  face. 

10 the  multitude  of  creeping  things  did  I  make 

ii the  seed  of  LAKHAMA  did  I  destroy, 

The  rest  is  lost. 
1  Yuzahi(zu}. 

VOL.  I 




1.  The  snare  which  they  had  made  the  gods  beheld. 

2.  They  beheld  also  the  bow,  how  it  had  been  stored  up. 

3.  The  work  they  had  wrought  they  lay  down, 

4.  and  ANU  lifted  (it)  up  in  the  assembly  of  the  gods. 

5.  He  kissed  the  bow ;  it  .... 

6.  and  he  addressed  the  arch  of  the  bow,  (saying)  thus  : 

7.  "The  wood  I  stretch  once  1  and  yet  again. 

8.  The  third  time  is  the  ...  of  the  star  of  the  bow  in 


9.  I  have  established  also  the  position  of  ... 
i  o.  Since  the  fates  "  . 

1  Istenumma. 



BESIDES  the  story  of  the  Creation  in  a  series  of 
successive  acts,  Mr.  George  Smith  brought  to  light 
the  fragments  of  two  tablets  containing  another 
legend  of  the  Creation  which  varied  very  consider- 
ably from  it.  The  tablets  belonged  to  the  library  of 
Assur-bani-pal  at  Nineveh,  but  the  colophon  informs 
us  that  they  had  been  copied  from  older  documents 
which  came  from  the  library  of  Cutha,  now  Tel 
Ibrahim,  in  Babylonia.  The  text  has  never  been 
published,  but  a  translation  was  given  of  it  by  Mr. 
Smith  in  his  Chaldean  Genesis,  and  a  revised  version 
by  myself  in  the  Records  of  the  Past,  vol.  xi.  As 
much  progress  has  been  made  in  cuneiform  studies 
during  the  ten  years  which  have  elapsed  since  the 
latter  was  published,  I  now  give  another  translation 
of  the  inscription,  embodying  the  improvements 
which  our  increased  knowledge  of  the  Assyrian 
language  has  enabled  me  to  make. 

The  Cuthaean  legend,  it  will  be  observed,  knows 


nothing  of  a  creation  in  successive  acts.  Chaos  is  a 
period  when  as  yet  writing  was  unknown.  But  the 
earth  already  existed,  and  was  inhabited  by  the 
chaotic  brood  of  Tiamat,  imperfect  first  attempts,  as 
it  were,  of  nature,  who  lived  in  a  city  underground. 
They  were  destroyed,  not  by  Merodach,  the  god  of 
Babylon,  but  by  Nergal,  the  patron-deity  of  Cutha, 
who  is  identified  with  Nerra,  the  god  of  pestilence, 
and  Ner,  the  mythical  monarch  of  Babylonia  who 
reigned  before  the  Deluge.  The  words  of  the  poem 
are  put  into  the  mouth  of  Nergal,  and  the  poem  itself 
was  written  for  his  great  temple  at  Cutha. 

The  legend  of  Cutha  agrees  better  with  that 
reported  by  Berossos  than  does  the  legend  of  the 
Epic.  In  both  alike  we  have  a  first  creation  of 
living  beings,  and  these  beings  are  of  a  composite 
nature,  the  offspring  of  Tiamat  or  Chaos.  In  both 
alike  the  whole  brood  is  exterminated  by  the  gods 
of  light. 

The  date  to  which  the  legend  in  its  present  form 
may  be  assigned  is  difficult  to  determine.  The  in- 
scription is  written  in  Semitic  only,  like  the  other 
creation-tablets,  and  consequently  cannot  belong  to 
the  pre-Semitic  age.  It  belongs,  moreover,  to  an 
epoch  when  the  unification  of  the  deities  of  Baby- 
lonia had  already  taken  place,  and  the  circle  of  the 
great  gods  was  complete.  Ea,  Istar,  Zamama, 
Anunit,  even  Nebo  and  Samas,  are  all  referred  to  in 
it.  Possibly  it  may  be  dated  in  the  age  of  Kham- 
muragas  (cir.  B.C.  2350). 



Many  lines  are  lost  at  the  commencement. 

2.  His  word  (is)  the  command  of  the  gods  .  .  . 

3.  His  glancing-white  instrument  (is)  the  glancing-white 

instrument  (of  the  gods). 

4.  (He  is)  lord  of  that  which  is  above  and  that  which  is 

below,  the  lord  of  the  spirits  of  earth, 

5.  who  drinks  turbid  waters  and  drinks  not  clear  waters ; 

6.  in   whose   field   that   warrior's   weapon    all  that  rests 

there  (?) 

7.  has  captured  (and)  destroyed. 

8.  On  a  tablet  he  wrote  not,  he  opened  not  (the  mouth), 

and  bodies  and  produce 

9.  he   caused  not  to   come   forth  in  the  land,   and  I 

approached  him  not. 

i  o.  Warriors  with  the  body  of  a  bird  of  the  valley,  men 

11.  with  the  faces  of  ravens, 

1 2.  did  the  great  gods  create. 

13.  In  the  ground  the  gods  created  his  city. 

14.  TIAMAT  gave  them  suck. 

15.  Their  progeny1  the  mistress  of  the  gods  created. 

1 6.  In  the  midst  of  the  mountains  they  grew  up  and  became 

heroes  and 

17.  increased  in  number. 

1 8.  Seven  kings,  brethren,  appeared  as  begetters; 

19.  six  thousand  (in  number  were)  their  armies. 

20.  The  god  BA-NINI  their  father  (was)  king;  their  mother 

21.  the  queen  (was)  MELILI  ; 

1  Sasur. 


22.  their  eldest  brother  who  went  before  them,  ME-MANGAB1 

(was)  his  name; 

23.  (their)  second  brother,  ME-DUDU2  (was)  his  name; 

24.  (their)  third  brother,  [ME-MAN]PAKH  (was)  his  name ; 

25.  (their)  fourth  brother,  [ME-DA]DA  (was)  his  name; 

2  6.  (their)  fifth  brother,  [ME-MAN]TAKH  (was)  his  name ; 

27.  (their)  sixth  brother,  [ME-RU]RUS  (was)  his  name; 

28.  (their  seventh  brother,  ME-RARA  was)  his  name. 


Many  lines  are  destroyed. 

1.  ...  the  evil  curse  .  .  . 

2.  He  turned  his  word  .  .  . 

3.  On  a  ...  I  arranged  .  .  . 

4.  On  a  tablet  the  evil  curse  he  wrote  (?)... 

5.  In  ...  I  urged  the  augurs  on. 

6.  Seven  against  seven  in  breadth  I  arranged  (them). 

7.  I  set  up  the  holy  reeds  (?). 

8.  I  prayed  to  (?)  the  great  gods, 

9.  ISTAR,  .  .  .,  ZAMAMA,  ANUNIT, 

10.  NEBO,  .  .  .  ,  (and)  SAMAS  the  warrior, 

11.  the  son  (of  the  Moon-god,  the  .   .  .  )  of  the  gods  my 

12 he  did  not  give,  and 

13.  thus  I  spake  to  my  heart 

1 4.  saying  :  Verily  it  is  I,  and 

1 5.  never  may  I  go  ...   beneath  the  dust ! 

1 6.  never  may  I  go  ...  the  prayer. 

17.  May  I  go  when  the  son  .  .  .  my  heart ; 

1 8.  and  may  I  renew  the  iron,  may  I  assume  the  black 


1  "The  voice"  or  "thunder  strikes."     The  Accadian  proper  names 
found  in  the  legend  indicate  that  although  in  its  present  form  it  is  of 
Semitic  origin  it  must  be  based  on  older  pre-Semitic  materials.     Moreover, 
the  expression  "his  name"  is  written  in  Accadian  (mu-ni)  which  shows 
that  it  has  been  quoted  from  an  Accadian  text. 

2  "The  voice  goes  up  and  down." 

3  "  The  voice  creates. "  4  Ati  lutsbat. 

THE  BAB  YL  ONI  AN  STOR  Y  OF  THE  CREA  TION     1  5  1 

19.  The  first  year  as  it  passed 

20.  one  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  warriors  I  caused  to 

go  forth,  and  among  them 

21.  not  one  returned  alive. 

22.  The  second  year  as  it  passed  I  caused  90,000  soldiers 

to  go  forth  and  none  returned  alive. 

23.  The  third  year  as  it  passed  I  caused  60,700  to  go  forth, 

and  none  returned. 

24.  They  were  carried  away,  they  were  smitten  with  sick- 

ness.    I  ate, 

25.  I  lamented,1  1  rested. 

26.  Thus  did  I  speak  to  my  heart  saying,  "  Verily  it  is  I, 


27.  (yet)  what  have  I  left  to  reign  over? 

28.  I  am  a  king  who  makes  not  his  country  whole, 


1.  and  a  shepherd  who  makes  not  his  people  whole, 

2.  Since  I  have  produced  corpses  and  have  left  a  desert."  : 

3.  With  terror  of  men,3  night,  death  (and)  plague  have  I 

cursed  it. 

4.  With  fear,  violence,  destruction  (and)  famine 

5.  (I  have  effected)  the  overthrow  of  all  that  exist. 

6  .......  there  descended. 

7  .......  (I)  caused  a  deluge. 

8  ........  that  deluge. 

9  .........  all 

i  o.  the  foundations  (of  the  earth  were  shaken  ?) 

11.  The  gods  ..... 

12.  Thou  didst  command  me,  and  .  .  . 

13.  and  they  are  created  (?)  .  .  . 

14.  Thou  protectest  .  .  . 

15.  A  memorial  of  drinking  and  .  .  . 
1  6.  in  supplication  to  Ea  .  .  . 

17.  holy  memorial  sacrifices  .... 

3  Salummat  nisi.     This  passage  shows  that  salummat  cannot  signify 
"brilliance,"  as  Jensen  supposes. 


1 8.  holy  laws  .... 

19.1  called  the  sons  of  the  augurs  .  .  . 

20.  seven  against  seven  in  breadth  I  arranged  (them). 

21.  I  placed  the  holy  reeds  (?)... 

22.  I  implored  (?)  the  (great)  gods, 

23.  ISTAR,  .  .  .,  (ZAMAMA,  ANUNIT), 

24.  NEBO,  .  .  .   (and  SAMAS  the  warrior) 

25.  the  son  (of  the  Moon-god,  the  ...  of  the  gods  my 



Many  lines  are  lost. 

1.  With  .... 

2.  the  men  .... 

3.  the  city  NAKX  .... 

4.  a  city  which  .... 

5.  to  .... 

6.  powerful  king  .... 

7.  the  gods  .... 

8.  my  hand  .... 

9.  Thou,  O  king,  high  priest,2  shepherd,  or  any  one  else, 

10.  whom  the  god  shall  call  (to)  rule  the  kingdom, 

1 1.  this  tablet  I  have  made  for  thee,  (this)  stele  I  have  in- 

scribed for  thee 

1 2.  in  the  city  of  CUTHA  in  the  temple  of  SULIM  ; 3 

1 3.  in  the  ark 4  of  NERGAL  I  have  left  it  for  thee. 

14.  Hearken  to  the  voice5  of  this  stele,  and 

15.  remove  it  not,  forget6  it  not; 

1 6.  fear  not,  tremble  not ! 

17.  May  he  establish  thy  seat ! 

1 8.  Mayest  thou  achieve  success7  in  thy  works  ! 

1  Perhaps  nak(ru)  "foreign."  z  Pate' si. 

3  The  name  of  the  great  temple  of  Nergal  in  Cutha.     For  the  reading 
see  my  Lectures  on  the  Religion  of  the  Ancient  Babylonians. 

4  Papakh,  "  the  ark"  in  which  the  image  of  the  god  was  carried,  and 
which  stood  in  the  inner  shrine  or  "  holy  of  holies  "  (parakku}. 

fi  Literally  "mouth."  6    Tensi  for  temsi.  7  Sijxir. 


19.  Build  up1  thy  fortresses  ! 

20.  Fill 2  thy  canals  with  water  ! 

21.  May  thy  papyri,3  thy  corn,  thy  silver, 

22.  thy  goods,  thy  property, 

23.  (and)  thy  furniture,  (all)  of  them 

24.  (be  multiplied) !  strengthen  the  ...  for  (thy)  hands  ! 
25 make  perfect  the  stores  of  thine  increase  ! 

26.  (As  for  the  evil  one)  thou  shalt  cause  him  to  go  forth. 

27.  (As  for  the  harmful  one)  thou  shalt  enchain  him. 

1   Urrim,  whence  arammu,  "a  wall." 
2  Nabli;  comp.  nubalu,  W.  A.  I.,  i.  15,  vii.  57.  3  Pi'sannati. 



HAVING  worked  for  more  than  five-and-twenty  years 
at  the  Babylonian  and  Assyrian  deeds  of  contract  and 
legal  decisions,  and  having  explained  the  documents 
relating  to  these  subjects  which  have  been  discovered 
in  Mesopotamia,  I  am  now  able  to  state  that  the 
meaning  of  these  difficult  texts  is  at  length  fairly 
well  understood  by  us.  The  simplest  explanation  is 
that  which  is  the  most  difficult  to  obtain,  and  I  have 
no  doubt  that  the  translations  and  interpretations  I 
offer  will  appear  to  many  scholars  so  easy  and  con- 
clusive as  to  make  them  assume  that  any  one  might 
have  discovered  them  at  the  outset.  Fortunately, 
however,  not  only  the  translations  of  other  scholars, 
but  my  own  imperfect  ones  as  well,  have  been  pub- 
lished, and  will  thus  convince  younger  students  of  the 
immense  difficulty  there  is  in  arriving  at  results  which 
seem  so  evident. 

The  first  texts  which  I  have  selected  contain  cer- 
tain contracts  and  legal  decisions  relating  indubitably 
to  captive  Jews  who  had  been  carried  to  Babylon  after 


the  destruction  of  Jerusalem.  One  of  the  most  inter- 
esting of  them  is  a  lawsuit  commenced  by  a  Jewish 
slave  named  Barachiel  in  order  to  recover  his  original 
status.  A  copy  of  the  text  has  been  published  by 
Father  Strassmaier  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Oriental 
Congress  at  Leyden,  No.  42. 

My  translation  of  it,  which  will  appear  in  the 
Transactions  of  the  Oriental  Congress  at  Vienna,  has 
been  amended  in  one  or  two  points.  The  translations 
offered  by  Dr.  V.  Revillout  and  a  young  Assyriologist, 
Dr.  Peiser,  are  very  imperfect,  Dr.  Revillout  having 
entirely  misunderstood  the  nature  of  the  suit  referred 
to,  and  having  fallen  into  several  grammatical  errors, 
while  Dr.  Peiser's  rendering  is  not  less  unacceptable. 

The  case  was  as  follows  : — Barachiel,  who  bears 
the  same  name  as  the  father  of  Elihu  in  the  Book  of 
Job  (xxxii.  2,  6),  had  been  the  property  of  a  wealthy 
person  named  Akhi-nuri,  who  had  sold  him  to  a  widow 
of  the  name  of  Gaga,  about  570  B.C.  He  remained  in 
the  house  of  this  lady  as  a  slave,  with  the  power  of 
liberating  himself  by  paying  a  sum  equal  to  his  pecu- 
lium,  or  private  property  which  he  had  been  allowed 
to  acquire,  like  a  slave  in  ancient  Rome  ;  but  it  seems 
that  he  was  never  fortunate  enough  to  be  able  to  afford 
the  sum  of  money  required.  He  remained  with  Gaga 
twenty-one  years,  and  was  considered  the  res  or  pro- 
perty of  the  house,  and  as  such  was  handed  over  in 
pledge,  was  restored,  and  finally  became  the  dowry  of 
Nubta  ("Bee"),  the  daughter  of  Gaga.  Nubta  gave 
him  to  her  son  and  husband  in  exchange  for  a  house 


and  some  slaves.  After  the  death  of  the  two  ladies 
he  was  sold  to  the  wealthy  publican  Itti-Marduk- 
baladh,  from  whose  house  he  escaped  twice.  Taken 
the  second  time,  he  instituted  an  action  in  order  that 
he  might  be  recognised  as  a  free-born  citizen,  of  the 
family  of  Bel-rimanni ;  and  to  prove  that  he  was  of 
noble  origin  he  pretended  that  he  had  performed  the 
matrimonial  solemnities  at  the  marriage  of  his  master's 
daughter  Qudasu  with  a  certain  Samas-mudammiq.1 
Such  a  performance,  doubtless,  implied  that  the  officiat- 
ing priest  was  of  free  birth,  and  that  no  slave  or  freed- 
man  was  qualified  to  take  part  in  it.  He  declared,  "  I 
am  a  mar-bant"  or  " descendant  of  a  banti"  literally  a 
"  generator,"  or  "ancestor,"  one  of  those  semi-mythical 
heroes  who  gave  their  names  to  the  noble  families  of 
Babylon.2  "  I  belong,"  he  went  on  to  say,  "  to  the 
family  of  Bel-rimanni,"  who  in  other  texts  is  called  a 
high-priest.  The  case  was  brought  before  a  court  of 
justice,  and  the  royal  judges  asked  Barachiel  to  prove 
that  he  was  of  free  birth.  This  actio  prcejudicialis  de 
ingenuitate  was  urged  for  and  against,  and  eventually 
Barachiel  was  obliged  to  retract  his  former  statements. 
He  was  unable  to  rebut  the  evidence  alleged  against 
him,  and  though  it  is  probable  that  the  two  married 
persons  whose  "hands  he  had  joined"  were  dead, 
other  witnesses  came  forward  who  proved  that  he 

1  The   father   of  Akhi-nuri  was   Nabu  -  nadin  -  akh  ( ' '  Nebo  gives  a 
brother  "),  and  the  father  of  the  son-in-law  bears  the  same  name.     But  it 
is  by  no  means  certain  that  the  uncle  married  his  niece,  since  the  two 
persons  may  have  been  different. 

2  It  would  be  a  useful  work  to  collect  the  names  of  all  the  band  or 
ancestors,  men  of  noble  birth,  like  Egibi,  Nur-Sin,  and  others. 


was    a    slave   with    the    power    of    purchasing    his 

The  exact  date  at  which  the  judgment  was  delivered 
is  not  quite  certain,  but  it  must  be  later  than  the 
seventh  year  of  Nabonidus,  when  the  father  Itti- 
Marduk-baladh  was  still  alive. 

I  will  now  proceed  to  make  some  further  remarks 
on  the  details  of  the  case,  as  it  is  very  interesting,  and 
offers  some  useful  hints  as  to  the  legal  procedure  of 
the  Babylonians. 

The  name  of  Bariki-ili  or  Barachiel  is  evidently 
that  of  a  Jew.  He  is  called  "  a  slave  of  ransom,"  that 
is  to  say,  not  a  slave  who  has  already  purchased  his 
freedom,  since  in  that  case  he  would  have  been  free, 
but  a  slave  who  was  allowed  by  special  laws  to  employ 
his  private  fortune  in  the  work  of  liberating  himself. 
He  professes  to  have  been  the  avil  taslisu  or  "joiner" 
of  the  hands  of  bride  and  bridegroom  at  a  wedding 
which  must  have  taken  place  before  the  thirty-fifth 
year  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  reign,  when  he  still  belonged 
to  the  house  of  Akhi-nuri,  "the  seller  of  the  slave,"  as 
he  is  called  at  the  end  of  the  text 

After  the  declaration  of  the  slave,  the  document  is 
comparatively  easy  to  understand.  The  judges,  after 
perusing  all  the  evidence,  do  not  find  any  proofs  that 
Barachiel  was  a  man  of  free  birth,  and  accordingly  say 
to  him  :  "  Prove  to  us  that  you  are  the  descendant  of 
a  (noble)  ancestor."  Thereupon  Barachiel  confesses 
that  he  is  not  free-born,  but  has  twice  run  away  from 
the  house  of  his  master  ;  as,  however,  the  act  was  seen 


by  many  people  he  was  afraid,  and  said,  "  I  am  the 
son  of  a  (noble)  ancestor."  "  But  I  am  not  free-born," 
he  continues,  and  then  gives  an  account  of  the  events 
of  his  life. 

The  words  mar-banut  in  line  16  signify  "condition 
of  being  a  free-born  citizen,"  and  not  "  letter  of  client- 
ship,"  as  Dr.  Peiser  supposes.  The  expression  "  letter 
of  citizenship  "  (dippi  mar-banuf]  occurs  several  times, 
and  signifies  the  warrant  given  by  a  master  to  his 
emancipated  slave.  "  Non-citizenship  "  was  the  fourth 
fact  guaranteed  by  the  seller  of  a  slave  to  the  pur- 
chaser, the  other  three  being:  (i)  that  the  slave 
should  not  rebel  or  run  away ;  if  he  returned  to  his 
former  master  he  was  to  be  sent  back  ;  (2)  that  no 
claim  should  lie  against  the  validity  of  the  sale  on 
account  of  technical  or  other  errors  ;  and  (3)  that  the 
purchaser  should  be  secured  against  any  claim  made 
upon  the  services  of  a  slave  by  a  royal  officer. 

Barachiel  adds  that  after  the  death  of  the  two 
ladies  Gaga  and  Nubta,  he  was  sold  for  money  to 
Itti-Marduk-baladh,  of  the  Egibi  family,  thus  becom- 
ing a  servus  redimendus  argento,  a  slave  who  could  be 
ransomed  with  money,  and  that  he  awaits  the  sentence 
of  the  court. 

The  judges  decided  that  Barachiel  should  be 
restored  to  his  .original  status,  and  added  that  it  was 
in  the  uzuz  (or  ustiz)  of  the  two  married  persons 
Samas-mudammiq  and  Qudasu  that  the  judgment 
was  pronounced.  This  may  signify  "absence,"  the 
two  having  died  during  the  interval  of  more  than 


twenty  years  which  had  elapsed  since  the  marriage. 
It  is  probable  that  Barachiel  had  invented  the  story  of 
his  taking  part  in  the  wedding  because  he  thought 
that  its  falsity  could  not  be  detected.  If,  however,  the 
word  is  equivalent  to  the  expression  ina  du-zti,  the 
texts  from  Sippara  would  go  to  show  that  it  must 
mean  "  in  the  presence  of." 

It  may  be  remarked  that  not  a  word  is  said  about 
"  a  deed  of  slavery,"  which  was  certainly  not  given  to 
a  slave  in  order  to  prove  his  own  servile  condition  as 
a  mndex  libertatis,  as  Dr.  Revillout  seems  to  imagine. 

The  only  penalty  imposed  upon  the  slave  is  his 
restoration  to  his  ancient  condition  ;  penalties  were 
decreed  against  those  who  wished  to  annul  a  contract, 
not  against  those  who  pretended  to  be  free  citizens. 
In  this  respect  the  Babylonian  law  was  more  humane 
than  the  Roman.  This  is  the  more  surprising,  since 
it  cannot  be  denied  that  severe  penalties  were  at  times 
inflicted.  The  Micheaux- stones,  for  example,  in- 
scribed in  the  twelfth  century  before  our  era,  threaten 
the  transgressors  of  a  contract  and  those  who  annul 
their  covenants  with  the  curses  of  the  gods,  each  of 
whom  would  inflict  a  special  punishment.  The  old 
Jew  escaped  with  the  failure  of  his  attempt  to  recover 
his  undeserved  loss  of  liberty  ;  perhaps  the  court  took 
into  serious  consideration  his  fidelity  to  his  former 
master,  who  had  esteemed  him  to  be  worth  not  only  a 
house  but  other  slaves  as  well. 


i.  Barachiel  is  a  slave  of  ransom1  belonging  to  Gaga  the 

daughter  of 
2 whom  in  the  35th  year  of  Nebuchadnezzar, 

king  of  BABYLON,2 

3.  [from  Akhi-]nuri,  the  son  of  Nabu-nadin-akh,  for  the 

third  of  a  inina  and  8  shekels 

4.  she    had    bought.      Recently3    he   has    instituted   an 

action,    saying   thus  :    I  am  the   son   of  a  (noble) 
ancestor,  of  the  family  4  of  Bel-rimanni, 

5.  who  have  joined  the  hands  (in  matrimony)  of  Samas- 

mudammiq  the  son  of   Nabu-nadin-akh 

6.  and  the  woman  Qusadu  the   daughter  of  Akhi-nuri, 

even  I.     In  the  presence  of 

7.  the  high-priest,5  the  nobles  and  the  judges  of  Nabo- 

nidus  king  of  BABYLON 

8.  they  pleaded  the  case  and  listened  to  their  arguments 

in  regard  to  the  obligation  of  servitude 

9.  of  Barachiel.     From  the  35th  year  of  Nebuchadnezzar 

king  of  BABYLON 

10.  to  the  yth  year  of  Nabonidus  king  of  BABYLON,S  he 

had  been  sold  for  money,  had  been  put 

11.  in  pledge,  (and)  as  the  dowry  of  Nubta  the  daughter 

12.  of  Gaga  had  been  given.     Afterwards  Nubta  had  alien- 

ated him  by  a  sealed  contract ; 7 

1  For  the  meaning  of  this  expression  see  above,  p.  158. 

2  B.C.  570. 

3  Ana  eninni,  not  a  proper  name  as  Dr.  Revillout  supposes  ! 

4  Read  lu  zir.     Several  distinguished  persons  were  called  Bel-rimanni, 
among  others  a  priest  of  the  Sun-god. 

8  Sangu.  6  B.C.  549. 

7  The  text  does  not  seem  to  me  to  have  been  correctly  copied  here. 


13.  in  exchange  for  a  house  and  slaves  to  Zamama-nadin 

14.  her  son  and  Idina  her  husband  had  given  him.     They 

read  (the  evidence)  and 

15.  said  thus  to  Barachiel:  Thou  hast  brought  an  action 

and  said  :  The  son  of  a  (noble)  ancestor 

1 6.  am  I.     Prove  to  us  thy  (noble)  ancestry.     Barachiel 

his  former  statement 

1 7.  retracted,   saying :    Twice  have  I  run  away  from  the 

house  of  my  master,  but  many  people  (were  pre- 

1 8.  and1  I  was  seen.      I  was  afraid  and  said  (accordingly) 

that  I  am  the  son  of  a  (noble)  ancestor. 

1 9.  My  citizenship  exists  not ;  I  am  the  slave  of  ransom  of 


2  o.   Nubta   her   daughter    received   me    as    (her)  dowry ; 

21.  alienated  me  by  a  sealed  contract,  and  to  Zamama- 

nadin  her  son  and  Idina 2  her  husband 

22.  gave  me  in  exchange;  and  after  the  death   of  Gaga 

(and)  Nubta, 

23.  to  Itti-Marduk-baladh  the  son  of  Nabu-akhe-iddin  of 

the  family  of  Egibi,  for  silver 

24.  I   [was  sold].     I  am  a  slave.     Go  now,  [pronounce 

sentence]  about  me. 

25.  [The  high-priest],  the  nobles  and  the  judges  heard  the 


26.  [and]  restored  [Barachiel]  to  his  condition  as  slave  of 

ransom,    notwithstanding   the    absence    of   Samas- 

27.  [the  son  of  Nabu-nadin-akh]  and  Qudasu  the  daughter 

of  Akhi-nuri,  the  seller  3 

28.  [of  the  slave].     For  the  registration  of  this  [decision] 

Musezib  the  [priest] 

1  Not  ka. 

2  Such  names  are  all,  I  think,  emphatic  imperatives  :  Idina,  "give  !" 
Basa,  "  exist !  "  Iriba,  "  multiply  !  "     Considering  the  Aramaic  transcrip- 
tion of  the  last  name,  we  ought  perhaps  to  pronounce  Idinai,  Basai. 

3  Nadinan,  a  singular  noun  with  the  same  termination  as  makhiranu, 
' '  the  buyer  ;  "  masikhanu,  ' '  the  measurer  ;  "  paqiranu,  "  the  plaintiff ;  " 
napalkattanu,  "  the  defendant. " 

VOL.  I  M 


29.  [and] Nergal-akhe-iddin  the  judges 

30 of  the  family  of  Epis-el,  in  the  city  of  the  palace 

of  the  king  of  BABYLON,  the  iyth  day  of 
31.  the  month  Marchesvan1  [the  7th?  year]  of  Nabonidus 

king  of  BABYLON. 

1  October. 



SINCE  the  publication  of  my  Memoir  on  "  The  Cunei- 
form Inscriptions  of  Van  Deciphered  and  Translated  " 
in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  xiv.  4, 
1882,  we  have  begun  to  learn  something  about  a 
race  of  kings  who  ruled  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Van 
in  Armenia,  from  the  ninth  to  the  seventh  centuries 
before  our  era.  The  founder  of  the  dynasty,  Sar- 
duris  I,  the  son  of  Lutipris,  who  reigned  in  B.C.  833, 
introduced  the  cuneiform  system  of  writing  as  well 
as  other  elements  of  Assyrian  culture  into  the  country 
over  which  he  was  king.  The  inscriptions  he  has 
left  us  are  in  the  Assyrian  language ;  but  his  suc- 
cessors discontinued  the  use  of  a  foreign  tongue,  and 
the  language  of  their  texts  is  invariably  their  native 
one.  It  is  semi-flectional  in  character,  and  possibly 
belongs  to  the  same  family  of  speech  as  that  of 
which  Georgian  is  the  modern  representative.  For 
want  of  a  better  name  it  is  known  as  Vannic.  The 
story  of  its  decipherment  will  be  found  in  the  Memoir 
above  cited. 


The  grandson  of  Sarduris  I  was  Menuas,  a  prince 
who  carried  his  arms  far  and  wide,  and  has  bequeathed 
to  us  numerous  records  of  his  wars  and  buildings. 
Far  away  from  his  capital  of  Dhuspas  or  Tosp,  near 
the  mountain  of  Rowandiz  and  the  Lake  of  Urumiyeh, 
on  the  summit  of  the  pass  of  Keli-shin,  1 2,000  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  is  a  monument  of  his  cam- 
paigns, which  is  wrapt  during  the  greater  part  of  the 
year  in  a  coating  of  ice ;  in  the  north  he  engraved 
his  inscriptions  beside  the  banks  of  the  Araxes,  while 
the  record  of  his  campaign  against  "the  land  of  the 
Hittites  "  is  inscribed  on  the  cliff  of  the  Euphrates 
at  Palu,  about  midway  between  Malatiyeh  and  Van. 

The  inscription  translated  here  was  copied  by 
Schulz  and  Sir  A.  H.  Layard  from  a  stone  built  into 
the  wall  of  a  vault  under  the  church  of  Sts.  Peter  and 
Paul  at  Van,  and  a  squeeze  of  it  has  been  taken 
by  Captain  Clayton.  The  transliterated  text  and 
analysis  will  be  found  in  my  Memoir,  xxxii.  p.  555. 
The  text  is  mutilated  in  parts,  and  at  the  time  my 
Memoir  was  published  I  was  unable  to  restore  some 
of  the  passages  in  it.  The  progress  that  has  since 
been  made,  however,  in  the  study  of  the  Vannic  in- 
scriptions, enables  me  now  to  supply  their  deficiencies, 
and  also  to  correct  and  supplement  the  translation  I 
then  gave.  For  the  sake  of  Vannic  scholars  I  append 
here  a  transliterated  text  of  the  inscription  as  it 
should  read  after  the  restoration  of  the  missing 
characters  : — 


1.  [god  Khal-di-]ni-ni  us-ma-si-ni  man  Me-nu-a-s  man  Is- 


2.  [a-li-e]  i-u  tu-su-kha-a-ni  land  Ma-a-na-a-i-di  us-ta-a-di 

3.  [land  e-ba-]a-ni-a  tu-u-bi  a-ma-as-tu-u-bi  i-ku-u-ka-a-ni 

4.  [sali  si-su-kha-ni-]e  person  Khu-ra-di-ni-li  plural  kid-da- 

nu-u-li  kha-a-i-tu-u 

5.  [man  Sa-da-ha-li-]e-khi-ni-ni  land-m-m  city  Su-ri-si-li-ni 

city  Tar-khi-ga-ma-a-ni 

6.  [city  .  .  .  ]-dhu-ra-a-ni  man  Sa-da-ha-li-e-khi-ni-da-a-ni 


7.  [city  .  .  .  ]-li-e-i  stone  gar-bi-e  land  Kha-ti-na-as-ta-a-ni 

8 i   u-e   land  Al-zi-i-ni-ni   IIMCXIII  person 


9.  [sa-li-]e  a-li-ke  za-as-gu-u-bi  a-li-ke  alive  a-gu-u-bi 
10.   [god  Khal-di-]e  a-li-ma-a-nu  a-ru-u-bi  person   Khu-ra-di- 

na-u-e  plural 

We  learn  from  the  inscription  that  the  land  of  the 
Khate  or  Hittites  extended  as  far  north  as  Alzi,  the 
situation  of  which  is  given  in  the  inscription  of 
Tiglath-Pileser  I  (i.  64  ;  see  above,,  p.  94,  note  4), 
and  that  Sada-hadas,  whose  name  was  perhaps  .pro- 
nounced Sanda-hadas,  was  the  king  of  that  portion 
of  the  Hittite  nation  with  which  Menuas  was  brought 
into  contact.  The  mention  of  the  name  of  the  Khate 
or  Hittites  on  this  and  other  Vannic  monuments 
shows  that  the  name  was  not  confined  to  the  Hittites 
of  the  south. 


1.  (To  the  KHALDis-gods),1  the  gracious,  Menuas  the  son 

of  Ispuinis  2 

2.  (speaks)  thus  :  In  the  spring  (?),  when  I  had  approached 

the  land  of  MINNI  3 

3.  I  carried  away  the  people  of  (that  distant  country),  I 

partitioned  (them).     The  same 

4.  (year),  after  collecting  the  (baggage)  of  the  army,  the 

fruits  (?)  4 

5.  of  the  country  of  the  son  of  Sada-halis,  the  cities  of 


1  The  supreme  god  of  Van  was  Khaldis,  but  as  each  tribe  or  district 
also  worshipped  a  god  of  the  same  name,  there  were  many  Khaldis-gods 
who  are  invoked  by  the  Vannic  kings  along  with  the  supreme   Khaldis  of 
Van.     It  was  from  the  worship  of  Khaldis  that  the  population  of  a  part  of 
Armenia  became  known  to  the  Greeks  as  Khaldsei,  a  name  naturally  con- 
founded with  that  of  the  Chaldeans  of  Babylonia. 

2  The  Vannic  kings  usually  call  themselves  kings  of  Biainas  or  Bianas, 
a  name  which  has  passed  through  the  Byana  of  Ptolemy  into  the  modern 
Van.     Van  is  now,  however,  the  name  of  the  city  which  the  Vannic  kings 
called  Dhuspas  or  Tosp,  instead  of  denoting  a  district  as  it  did  in  their 
time,  Tosp  being  now  the  name  of  the  district.      Biainas  was  known  to  the 
Assyrians  under  the  name  of  Urardhu,  the  Ararat  of  the  Old  Testament. 
Mount  Ararat,  it  may  be  noted,  is  a  modern  designation,   the  name  of 
Ararat  not  being  applied  to  the  country  north  of  the  Araxes  in  the  Biblical 
age,  and  "  the  mountains  of  Ararat  "  of  Genesis  viii.  4  signifying,  as  in  the 
Assyrian  inscriptions,  the  Kurdish  mountains  to  the  south  of  Lake  Van. 

3  The  Mana  of  the  Vannic  texts  are  the  Manna  of  the  Assyrians,  the 
Minni  of  the  Old  Testament,  whose  position  is  shown  by  the  inscriptions  to 
have  been  immediately  to  the  west  of  the  kingdom  of  Van,  from  which  they 
were  separated  by  the  Kotur  range. 

4  Khai-tA  maybe  connected  with  khai-di-a-ni,  "fruits"  (from  khai, 
' '  to  grow  "),  but  it  may  also  be  a  compound  of  tu  and  kha,  ' '  to  possess, " 
like  'sui-du,  "  to  set  for  a  possession,"  or  abili-du,  "  to  set  on  fire." 

6  Tarkhi-gamas  seems  to  be  compounded  with  the  name  of  the  Hittite 
god  Tarkhu,  like  Tarkhu-lara,  king  of  the  Gamguma,  and  Tarkhu-nazi, 
king  of  Malatiyeh,  mentioned  on  the  Assyrian  monuments. 


6.  (and)  .  .  .  DHURAS,  which  is  called  the  seat  of  the  son 

of  Sada-halis, 

7.  the  stones  of  (the  city  of)  ...  lis,  which  is  called  the 

seat  of  the  HITTITES, 

8.  (I  captured),  and  2113  soldiers  of  (the  year),1  belonging 

to  the  country  of  ALZIS, 

9.  partly  I  killed,  partly  I  took  alive. 

10.  (To  KHALDIS)  I  brought  all  and  each  of  those  who  be- 
longed to  the  army. 

1  This  expression  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the  Vannic  texts,  and  its 
literal  translation  is  certified  by  ideographs  ;  but  what  it  means  is  doubtful. 



THE  oldest  Hebrew  inscription  yet  discovered  is  en- 
graved on  the  rocky  wall  of  the  subterranean  channel 
which  conveys  the  water  of  the  Virgin's  Spring  at 
Jerusalem  into  the  Pool  of  Siloam.  The  history  of 
its  discovery  is  curious.  In  the  summer  of  1880  one 
of  the  native  pupils  of  Dr.  Schick,  a  German  architect 
long  resident  in  Jerusalem,  was  playing  with  some 
other  lads  in  the  Pool,  and  while  wading  up  the  sub- 
terranean channel  slipped  and  fell  into  the  water. 
On  rising  to  the  surface,  he  noticed,  in  spite  of  the 
darkness,  what  looked  like  letters  on  the  rock  which 
formed  the  southern  wall  of  the  channel.  Dr.  Schick, 
on  being  told  of  them,  visited  the  spot,  and  found 
that  an  ancient  inscription,  concealed  for  the  most 
part  by  the  water,  actually  existed  there. 

The  first  thing  to  be  done  was  to  lower  the  level  of 
the  water,  so  as  to  expose  the  inscription  to  view. 
But  his  efforts  to  copy  the  text  were  not  successful. 
He  was  not  a  palaeographer ;  and  as  the  letters  of  the 
inscription,  as  well  as  every  crack  and  flaw  in  the  stone, 

1 69 

had  been  filled  by  the  water  with  a  deposit  of  lime,  it 
was  impossible  for  him  to  distinguish  between  char- 
acters and  accidental  markings  on  the  rock,  or  to 
make  out  the  exact  forms  of  the  letters.     The  first 
intelligible   copy   was   accordingly  made  by  myself 
during  my  visit  to  Jerusalem  in  February  1881.     As, 
however,  I  had  to  sit  for  hours  in  the  mud  and  water, 
working  by  the  dim  light  of  a  candle,  my  copy  required 
correction  in  several  points,  and  it  was  not  until  the 
arrival  of  Dr.  Guthe  six  weeks  later  that  an  exact 
facsimile  was  obtained.     Dr.  Guthe  removed  the  de- 
posit of  lime  by  the  application  of  an  acid,  and  so 
revealed  the  original  appearance  of  the  tablet.    A  cast 
of  it  was  taken,  and  squeezes  made   from  the  cast 
which  could  be  studied  at  leisure  and  in  a  good  light. 
The  inscription  is  engraved  on  the  lower  part  of  an 
artificial  tablet  cut  in  the  wall  of  rock  about   19  feet 
from  the  place  where  the  subterranean  conduit  opens 
out  upon  the  Pool  of  Siloam,  and  on  the  right  hand 
side  of  one  who  enters  it.     The  conduit  is  at  first 
about  1 6  feet  high  ;  but  the  height  gradually  lessens 
until  in  one  place  it  is  not  quite  2  feet  above  the 
floor  of  the  passage.     According  to  Captain  Conder's 
measurements,  the  tunnel  is  1708  yards  in  length  from 
the  point  where  it  leaves  the  Spring  of  the  Virgin  to 
the  point  where  it  enters  the  Pool  of  Siloam.     It  does 
not  run,  however,  in  a  straight  line,  and  towards  the 
centre  there  are  two  culs  de  sac,  the  origin  of  which  is 
explained  by  the  inscription.      We  there  learn  that 
the  workmen  began  the   conduit   simultaneously  at 


both  ends,  like  the  engineers  of  the  Mont  Cenis  tunnel, 
intending  to  meet  in  the  middle.  But  they  did  not 
succeed  in  doing  so,  though  the  two  excavations  had 
approached  one  another  sufficiently  near  for  the  work- 
men in  the  one  to  hear  the  sound  of  the  pickaxes  used 
by  the  workmen  in  the  other.  How  such  a  feat  of 
engineering  was  possible  in  the  age  when  the  tunnel 
was  excavated  it  is  difficult  to  understand,  more 
especially  when  we  remember  that  the  channel  slopes 
downward  through  the  rock,  and  winds  very  consider- 
ably. It  may  be  added  that  the  floor  of  the  conduit 
has  been  rounded  to  allow  the  water  to  pass  through 
it  more  easily. 

The  Pool  of  Siloam  is  of  comparatively  modern 
construction,  but  it  encloses  the  remains  of  a  much 
older  reservoir.  It  is  situated  on  the  south-eastern 
extremity  of  the  hill,  sometimes,  but  erroneously, 
called  Ophel,  which  lies  to  the  south  of  the  Temple- 
hill,  now  represented  by  the  Mosque  of  Omar,  but 
separated  from  the  latter  by  the  remains  of  a  valley, 
which  was  first  perceived  by  Dr.  Guthe  and  Dr. 
Schick.  The  Virgin's  Spring  is  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  hill,  but  more  to  the  north,  overlooking  the 
valley  of  the  Kidron.  As  it  is  the  only  natural 
spring,  or  "  gihon,"  as  the  Jews  would  have  called  it, 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jerusalem,  the  command  of 
its  supply  of  water  was  of  primary  importance  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Jewish  capital.  It  was,  however, 
outside  the  walls  of  the  city,  and  hence  the  necessity 
of  cutting  a  conduit  through  the  hill  which  should 

convey  its  water  to  a  reservoir  within  the  town.  We 
are  told  in  2  Chron.  xxxii.  4  that  when  the 
Assyrians  invaded  Judah  Hezekiah  "  stopped  all  the 
fountains,"  that  is  to  say,  he  concealed  them  under 
masonry  or  earth.  The  Virgin's  Spring  or  Gihon 
must  have  been  similarly  sealed  up,  while  its  water 
was  conducted  into  the  city  through  a  subterranean 

The  date  of  the  inscription  has  occasioned  a  good 
deal  of  controversy,  some  scholars  assigning  it  to  the 
reign  of  Hezekiah,  and  others  to  an  earlier  period. 
The  chief  reason  for  believing  it  to  have  been  a 
work  of  Hezekiah  is  that  in  2  Kings  xx.  20  it  is 
stated  that  "  he  made  a  pool  and  a  conduit,  and 
brought  water  into  the  city,"  while  in  2  Chron. 
xxxii.  30  we  read  that  he  "stopped  the  upper 
watercourse  of  Gihon,  and  brought  it  straight  down 
to  the  west  side  of  the  city  of  David."  But  a  more 
literal  rendering  of  the  latter  passage  would  be,  "  he 
stopped  the  exit  (inotsa]  of  the  waters  of  the  Upper 
Gihon,  and  he  directed  them  downwards  on  the  west 
side  of  the  city  of  David."  Here  it  is  evident  that 
by  the  Upper  Gihon  is  meant  the  Spring  of  the 
Virgin,  for  which  the  word  mdtsd  or  "  exit"  is  em- 
ployed in  the  inscription.  Besides  the  Upper  Gihon 
there  must  have  been  another  or  Lower  Gihon,  which 
can  have  been  none  other  than  the  Pool  of  Siloam. 
This  had  become  a  second  source  of  water-supply, 
and  might  therefore  with  propriety  be  named  "a 


It  would  consequently  appear  from  the  chronicler's 
words  that  the  Pool  of  Siloam  already  existed  in  the 
time  of  Hezekiah,  and  that  what  the  Jewish  monarch 
did  was  to  excavate  a  second  conduit,  running  from 
the  Pool,  not  in  a  winding  direction  like  the  tunnel 
of  Siloam,  but  in  a  straight  direction  along  the 
western  side  of  the  city  of  David.  Now  such  a 
conduit  has  actually  been  discovered  cut  in  the  rock 
and  leading  from  the  Pool  of  Siloam  to  another 
reservoir  which  once  existed  below. 

There  is,  moreover,  evidence  in  the  Book  of  Isaiah 
that  the  tunnel  of  Siloam  was  in  existence  before 
Hezekiah  came  to  the  throne.  In  Isaiah  viii.  6  a 
prophecy  is  recorded,  uttered  while  Ahaz  was  still 
reigning,  in  which  allusion  is  made  to  "the  waters 
of  Shiloah  that  go  softly."  This  can  hardly  refer 
to  anything  else  than  the  gently -flowing  stream 
which  still  runs  through  the  tunnel  of  Siloam.  The 
inference  is  supported  by  the  name  Shiloah  itself, 
which  probably  signifies  "  the  tunnel,"  and  would 
have  been  given  to  the  locality  in  consequence  of 
the  channel  which  was  here  excavated  through  the 

The  characters  of  the  inscription  exhibit  to  us 
the  alphabet  which  was  used  by  the  prophets  before 
the  Exile.  They  belong  to  what  may  be  termed 
the  southern  or  Jewish  branch  of  the  old  Phoenician 
alphabet,  a  parallel  branch  to  which  was  used  in 
Moab,  and  is  found  on  the  Moabite  Stone.  The 
forms  of  some  of  the  letters  are  more  archaic  than 


those  on  the  Moabite  Stone,  the  forms  of  others  less 
so.  Similar  forms  are  met  with  on  early  Israelitish 
and  Jewish  seals,  which  go  back  to  a  period  preced- 
ing the  Captivity.  They  are  characterised  by  a 
peculiarity  which  shows  not  only  that  writing  was 
common,  but  also  that  the  usual  writing  material 
was  papyrus  or  parchment,  and  not  stone  or  metal. 
The  "  tails"  attached  to  certain  letters  are  not  straight 
as  on  the  Moabite  Stone  or  in  Phoenician  inscriptions, 
but  rounded.  The  words,  it  may  be  added,  do  not 
always  end  with  the  line. 

The  language  of  the  inscription  is  the  purest 
Hebrew.  It  presents  us  with  only  one  unknown  word, 
zadali  in  line  3,  which  seems  to  mean  "excess"  or  "ob- 
stacle." Why  it  should  have  been  engraved  on  the 
lower  part  of  a  carefully-prepared  tablet,  where  the 
water  of  the  conduit  would  necessarily  conceal  it,  it 
is  impossible  to  conjecture.  The  upper  part  of  the 
tablet  may  perhaps  have  been  intended  to  contain  a 
royal  inscription  giving  the  name  of  the  king  under 
whom  the  work  was  executed. 

One  fact,  however,  is  made  very  clear  by  the 
text.  Whether  it  were  the  Siloam  tunnel  itself,  or 
the  second  tunnel  leading  from  it  to  a  lower  reservoir, 
that  was  constructed  by  Hezekiah,  in  either  case  the 
Pool  of  Siloam  would  lie  "  on  the  west  side  of  the 
city  of  David."  "  The  city  of  David"  must,  accord- 
ingly, have  stood  on  the  southern  hill,  the  so-called 
Ophel  ;  and  since  the  city  of  David  was  identical 
with  Zion,  according  to  2  Samuel  v.  7,  this  hill  must 


represent  the  original  mount  of  Zion.  Consequently 
the  valley  of  the  Sons  of  Hinnom  must  be  the  valley 
which  was  known  in  the  time  of  Josephus  as  the 
Tyropceon  or  Cheesemakers'.  It  once  divided  both 
the  Temple  hill  and  the  southern  hill  from  the 
mountains  on  the  west,  though  it  is  now  choked 
with  the  rubbish  which  the  numerous  destroyers  of 
Jerusalem  have  thrown  into  it.  In  some  places  the 
rubbish  is  more  than  70  feet  deep,  and  under  it,  if 
anywhere,  we  must  look  for  the  tombs  of  the  kings 
that  were  cut  in  the  rocky  cliff  of  the  city  of  David. 
Here,  too,  if  anywhere,  will  be  found  the  relics  of  the 
temple  and  palace  that  Nebuchadnezzar  destroyed, 
overlaid  with  the  accumulations  of  more  than  two 
thousand  years. 

A  cast  of  the  Siloam  inscription  may  be  seen  in 
the  rooms  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  and 
facsimiles  in  Canon  Isaac  Taylor's  History  of  the 
Alphabet,  i.  p.  234,  and  in  Fresh  Light  from  the 
Monuments,  p.  101. 

1.  (Behold  the)  excavation !     Now  this  is  the  history  of 

the  excavation.     While  the   excavators   were    still 
lifting  up 

2.  the  pick,1  each  towards  his  neighbour,  and  while  there 

were  yet  three  cubits  to  (excavate,  there  was  heard) 
the  voice  of  one  man 

3.  calling  to  his  neighbour,  for  there  was  an  excess  (?)  in 

the  rock  on  the  right  hand  (and  on  the  left  ?).    And 
after  that  on  the  day 

1  Garzen,  translated   "ax"  in  i   Kings  vi.  7,  where  it  is  used  of  the 
instrument  with  which  the  stones  of  Solomon's  temple  were  quarried. 


4.  of  excavating  the  excavators  had  struck  pick  against 

pick,  one  against  another, 

5.  the  waters  flowed  from  the  spring1  to  the  pool2  for 

a  distance  of  1200  cubits.     And  (part)3 

6.  of  a  cubit  was  the  height  of  the  rock  over  the  head  of 

the  excavators. 

1  Motsa,  literally  "exit,"  which  is  used  of  the  Upper  Gihon  or  Virgin's 
Spring  in  2  Chron.  xxxii.  30. 

2  Berechah,  rendered   "pool"  in  2  Sam.  ii.  13,  Isaiah  xxii.  9,  n,  etc. 
We  learn  from  the  latter  passage  (Isaiah  xxii.  9,  n)  that  there  were  at 
least  three  "pools"  or  reservoirs  in  Jerusalem  in  the  time  of  Hezekiah, 
and  yet  our  inscription  shows  that  there  must  have  been  a  period  when 
only  one  such  reservoir  existed,  since  it  terms  the  Pool  of  Siloam  ' '  the 

3  A  flaw  in  the  rock  makes  this  word  doubtful.      It  begins  with  m  and 
ends  with  /,  and  appears  to  consist  of  three  letters. 

END    OF   VOL.    I 

Printed  by  R.  &  R.  CLARK,  Edinburgh. 


Assyrian  Grammar.  An  Elementary  Grammar  and  Reading-Book  of 
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terian}.— "  A  beautiful  Bible  in  all  respects,  most  carefully  edited 
and  well  up  to  date." 

Dr.  J.  G.  GREENWOOD  (Owens,  Manchester}.— ''  You  have  conferred 
a  great  boon,  not  on  teachers  only,  but  on  all  serious  students  of 
Holy  Scripture." 

Rev.  J.  MORRISON,  D.D.  (Free  Church,  Glasgow).— "The  informa- 
tion is  full  and  marked  by  scholarly  exactness.  Just  such  a  book 
as  should  be  in  the  hands  of  every  Sunday  School  Teacher." 

Rev.  H.  R.  REYNOLDS,  D.D.  (Cheshunt).—  "Excels  both  in  range  of 
subject  matter,  order  and  proportion  of  theme,  and  fulness  of 
detail,  any  similar  effort  .  .  .  leaves  nothing  to  be  desired." 

Rev.  ALEX.  WHYTE,  D.D.  (Edinburgh).—1''  This  is  well  named  the 
Teacher's  Bible,  and  the  'Comprehensive  Teacher's  Bible,'  for  it 
comprehends  the  whole  apparatus  the  teacher  needs." 

Rev.  C.  H.  SPURGEON.— "  It  is  just  what  a  teacher  wants  :  I  do  not 
see  how  it  could  be  better." 



Professor  SAYCE. — "It  is  a  marvel  of  completeness.  Nothing  seems 
to  be  wanting." 

Rev.  E.  BRUCE,  D.D.  (Chairman  of  the  Congregational  Union  of 
England  and  Wales}. — "It  is  an  exquisite  gem  of  workmanship, 
the  helps  for  students  and  teachers  are  most  comprehensive  and 
invaluable. " 

Rev.  J.  CLIFFORD,  D.D.  (President  of  the  Baptist  Union}.—11  It  sup- 
plies the  precise  information  the  teacher  asks  for  and  should  have." 

Rev.  A.  MACKENNAL,  D.D.  (Ex-Chairman,  Congregational  Union). 
— ''  The  work  is  admirably  done  ;  for  fulness,  accuracy,  and  present- 
day  intelligence,  I  do  not  know  any  compendium  equal  to  it." 

Rev.  F.  E.  CLARK  (Boston,  U.S.,  Founder  of  the  Young  People's 
Society  of  Christian  Endeavour). — "I  hope  that  we  shall  be  able 
to  bring  it  to  the  notice  of  our  young  people  everywhere." 

Miss  MARIANNE  FARNINGHAM.— "The  Comprehensive  Teacher's 
Bible  will  henceforth  always  lie  on  my  library  table  for  reference 
and  help." 

BOOKSELLER.  — "  Nothing  short  of  an  exhaustive  apparatus  criticus 
is  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  instructor." 

CHRISTIAN  AGE. — "  The  most  comprehensive  and  complete  work  of 
the  kind." 

METHODIST  TIMES  (Rev.  Hugh  Price  Hughes).—  "A  vast  amount 
of  information  of  the  greatest  value  to  Bible  students. " 

SUNDAY  SCHOOL  TIMES.— "A  perfect  help  to  Bible  study.  The 
best  present." 

FAMILY  CHURCHMAN. — "  More  valuable  to  teachers  than  any  con- 
cordance. Simply  phenomenal  at  the  price." 

Six  Editions,  prices  from  Four  Shillings  each.